The battle of Molodi in 1572: like Russia again was almost TatarPictolic
From 29 July to 2 August 1572, near the village of Molodi modern Chekhov district of the Moscow region was the battle that decided the fate of Russia. In case of defeat Russia could become Tatar ulus, and a vassal of the Ottoman Empire. Only thanks to the military talents of Prince Mikhail vorotynsky and sacrifice of the warriors, the Russian defeated and remained free, though before 1700 continued to pay the Wake of the Crimean Khan.
Ivan the terrible — the first Russian ruler, who called himself king. For access to the Baltic sea and the protection of Northern Russian lands Ivan was at war with Poland, Lithuania, the Livonian order, Sweden, Denmark. To focus on this front prevented a hostile Crimea, which the war with Muscovites pushed Istanbul.
The Tatar Horde, during the RAID
The battle over the preceding century the Tatars were made to Russia 48 raids. The entire economy of the Crimea was focused on the plunder of the neighbouring countries. Steppe annually went in the raids, and burned the towns and villages, robbing people and stealing hundreds of thousands of people from the territory of modern Russia, Poland, Ukraine. To fight the Tatars in Moscow had to keep on the southern borders of troops that could be useful in the West.
In the spring of 1571, the Crimean Khan Devlet Giray Yurt went on another trip to Russia. To him arrived at the camp Russian traitor kudeyar Tishenkov. The defector said Giray that Russia, weakened. Recently there was plague in the army of Tsar Ivan lot of Germans, soldiers and Tatars can't plunder the provincial towns, and Moscow.
23 may 1571 the Crimean 40 thousand horsemen appeared under the walls of the capital. Tsar Ivan the terrible at the time, was in residence in the Alexandrovskaya Sloboda. The next day, the Tatars burned the outskirts of the city, a strong wind picked up, suffered a wall of fire in the direction of Moscow. The wooden city was also on fire. A British diplomat and an eyewitness John Fletcher wrote that in four hours the city with a radius of 30 miles burned to the ground.
Partially survived district of Chinatown, which was located behind a stone wall. The fire killed tens of thousands of Muscovites, many suffocated in the smoke. Seeking escape, the townspeople ran for the walls of Moscow, where they were caught Tatars. Subsequently Davlet Giray wrote in Istanbul that led to the Crimea 60 thousand Russian prisoners. According to contemporaries to 1571 in the Russian capital was living 100-120 thousand people.
Learning about the massacre, Ivan the terrible is rushed to Moscow, and in the village Bratovshchina he was met by messengers Devlet Giray, who sent a letter to Khan. Crimean Lord was to give the Kazan and Astrakhan. Gift Khan handed Ivan decorated with stones dagger, which suggested to the king to be killed.
In a Yurt Tatar Khan
The defeat of Moscow was full, and Ivan the terrible sought peace. He sent in Bakhchisarai and the Istanbul Embassy, however, Devlet Giray, encouraged by the victory and the support of Turkey, decides to make Moscow the ulus of Orda and to revive the Empire of Genghis Khan.
In the early summer of 1572 army Devlet Giray went out for a hike. Khan led to Russia 40 thousand formidable Crimean riders, up to 10 thousand Nogai Tatars and few thousand Circassians. On the way to the Horde joined small groups of the steppe robbers, wandering in the Wild field. All these troops were light cavalry, fighting on the Mongolian sample. The Turkish Sultan sent 7 thousand Janissaries — the marching infantry, firing the "fire fight".
Janissaries — foot guard of the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
That this was no ordinary RAID, says what Devlet Giray painted nobles labels. In them, he indicated which of the princes will rule in Vladimir, Ryazan, Nizhny Novgorod and other cities conquered Rus'. The Tatars plundered the territory and were in a hurry to Moscow, leaving the search for prey for later.
According to the "shore" of painting in the Russian ratification was 20 034 warrior. The army collected a whole year, and it consisted of archers, knights children of the local cavalry, policemen Cossacks. People sent all Vladimir Russia, Ryazan, Smolensk, Vyatka.
Moscow archers. Modern reconstruction
Fifteen hundred warriors gave the Metropolitan Orthodox bishops, thousands of German cavalryman and infantry were recruited in the Baltic States. First to fight for Russia came from don Cossacks. Up to 4 thousand Dontsov led the famous ataman Michael Cherkashenin.
Russian soldiers during the battle of Molodi
He commanded a battle-hardened General Prince Mikhail Vorotynsky, his assistant became an Oprichnik Dmitriy Khvorostinin. Under the leadership of vorotynsky was all forces of Russia, who survived numerous wars and epidemics. Similar in size to the army of Tsar Ivan the terrible gathered in Novgorod, where he was preparing for an invasion from the West. There's also a few months he was praying in the Church, asking the Lord for the victory.
25 Jul Tatars appeared near Tula, and the next day tried to force the Oka river near Serpukhov. Due to the large number of guns in Russian Divey-Murza, chief warlord Khan Devlet Giray, I realized that cross it will not work with heavy losses and retreated, but went to the trick.
In front of Serpukhov he left a diversionary force, and the main forces of the Tatars huge wings broke apart. Divey-Murza led the researchers to the West of Serpukhov. Nogai Tatars, led Tereberdey-Murza went to the East of the city. The purpose of the maneuver to circumvent the Russian and cut them off from Moscow.
Both the army crossed the river Oka, bypassed the Russian shelf and came in its path. The dangerous situation. Written Moscow remained 50 miles. However, on 29 July, the Crimean Khan comes the news that the Russians attacked the transports. It was four and a half thousand horsemen and 300 Khvorostinin German cavalryman.
Devlet Giray sent against them 12 thousand Crimean Tatars and Nogais. After a short confrontation steppe drove Russian, but this retreat was part of a risky plan vorotynsky. Oprichnik Khvorostinin bring his opponent to a field near the village of Molodi. On three sides it was surrounded by forest, on the South Bank of the river stood Rojica trump vorotynsky — Gulyay-Gorod.
Gulyay-Gorod — field fortification of the linked carts and wooden boards
When the riders Khvorostinin entered the field, they were divided into two equal parts and disappeared into the woods. Their pursuers Tatars ran into dense pishchal'noye and cannon fire. Ensued a terrible battle. On the banks of the Rozhayka the approaches to the walk-the town was defended by six orders of Musketeers. It is unknown how many volleys gave the warriors, but they all died in battle. Devlet Giray was forced to turn from Moscow and go to Vorotynsk. Started the decisive battle.
On July 31, the Khan sent all the troops to storm a walking city, but the Russian attack was repulsed. Especially a lot of nomads died from special defense musket, which had a long barrel and caliber of 20-25 mm. The weapon pierced any armor, and inflicted terrible wounds.
1 Aug Tatars in the battle led to the Supreme commander of the Divey-Murza. Part of the Russian steppe covered with arrows and the others tried to break the shields walk-city and to break in. Riders Khvorostinin who were hiding in the woods, counterattacked and tried to ward off the enemy. In one of these assaults serviceman Tatar Temir Shibaev the Alalykina captured Divey-Murza.
Not having achieved success and having suffered huge losses, the Horde retreated. In Gulyay-Gorod run out of ammo, not enough food and water. To the river Rzhavchik was several tens of meters, but the space was exposed to fire Krymchaks, and Russian drink horse blood. Khan has decided to starve the enemy by famine.
The evening of August 1 Devlet Giray Russian intercepted a messenger with a letter in which was written that Ivan the terrible leads an army of 40 thousand people. It was another trick vorotynsky. No reinforcements were not, and the unknown warrior was deliberately sacrificed herself and put the Tatars with a forged letter. Devlet Giray decided that we should go to the assault.
August 2, Devlet Giray was in a hurry the entire Horde, and with the support of seven thousand Janissaries threw her on the assault. The hillside was littered with the corpses of the steppe, but they still approached the walls of the walk-city. Tatars hands trying to rip Board, but the Russian swords and axes fought back. The chronicle stated that on the ground lay a lot of severed hands.
By evening, the Crimean Khan has concentrated forces on the slope of a hill. Vorotynskiy solved another one dangerous step. He quietly led the riders of the big regiment and hollow he led them to the rear of the Tatars. The Governor came down on the enemy, and at the same time of a walking city for the outing came Khvorostinin.
Tatars trembled, and human shaft pushed from the Russian positions. The battle killed up to 15 thousand Krymchaks, Nogais, Turks and 12 thousand were drowned in the eye, fleeing from persecution. Khan's army lost all the camp seven thousand Janissaries were left lying on the battlefield, killing most of the Crimean MPD, the son, the grandson and son-in-law of the Khan.
Devlet Giray left barrier of three thousand horsemen, and with the remnants of the troops fled to the steppe. Russian lost in the battle 6 thousand warriors and did not allow Russia to lose independence.
Keywords: The battle