Great as obry: who were the Avars, zaprjagaevii Slavic women in the cart instead of the oxPictolic
In the summer of 558 residents of Constantinople were seen on the streets of horsemen dressed in armor of iron plates. The soldiers were tall, wore on the head in two long braids and rode on powerful horses, also protected by armor. These men were ambassadors of the Avars, who arrogantly declared to the Emperor Justinian that they wary — the strongest people on earth that can destroy any enemy. For the Slavs the Avars were real tormentors, who demanded tribute not only wealth, but also with blood.
Where did the Avars historians have not figured out. The most popular version says that they come from the steppes, extending along the modern border of Northern China. Some historians believe that before you get to Europe, they roamed between the Caspian and the sea of Azov. The latter is considered the homeland of the Avars, the steppe of Central Asia.
Having studied skulls from the Avar raised mounds, anthropologists came to the conclusion that 80% of them were Caucasians. However, 34% belonged to the Nordic race, which is characterized by tall stature, light eyes and hair. 20% belonged to Mongoloid, which, according to historians, joined the Horde in Siberia and the black sea region.
The Avar was the runic alphabet, but there is no evidence that they used it for correspondence. Avar warriors wore on her head in two long plaits on neck hryvnias, and on the gold belt buckle with the elements similar to the Scythian "animal style".
On the battlefield Avar horseman was the equivalent of a modern tank. They fought, and the nomads, until they broke through in Europe. Of the Avars and their horses were protected by armor of metal plates. On the head they wore a deep helmet with visor-mask. In battle, the Avars used powerful bows and swords-broadswords, leaving terrible wounds. And most importantly: that the Avars brought the stirrup to Europe, which revolutionized military Affairs.
A modern reconstruction of the Avar horsemen
Stirrups provide a secure fit in the saddle and significantly increased the capabilities of the rider in battle. The Avars began the battle with a bombardment of the enemy with arrows, then steel-clad horsemen, armed with heavy lances, crashed into the ranks of the enemy. Due to the stirrups, the lance was very strong. The defeat of the enemy was completed with a reciprocating cutting.
557 year 20 thousand Avar horsemen appeared in the black sea, inhabited by the warlike nomadic Savir, the barsils, utiguri. The aliens swept the new enemies as a knife through butter passed through the territory of modern Ukraine.
In 558, in Alliance with kutriguri they defeated the tribes of the Danube utigur and antes Slavs. In the same year, Byzantium began to pay them an annual tribute. Seven years later, the Avars around the Carpathians and into Western Europe. Perpetrate a dreadful massacre and capturing Frankish king Sigibert, the Horde returned to the Danube.
Empire expanded and took control of the Slavs. On the territories controlled by the Avars built a wooden fortress-hinge, where he kept the supplies derived from the Slavs. Chroniclers wrote that they despised the conquered peoples. Chronicles the story known as the Avars launched a war against the Slavic tribe of dulebs. After winning, instead of oxen, and horses, they were harnessed to carts dulevski women and was rolling.
The conquered Slavs had paid tribute not only products but also people. Frankish historian Fredegarii wrote that they supplied the Avars militias. During battles the Avars the Slavs were put in the front lines. They took the brunt and saved the lords-Avar from losses. Fredegarii also wrote:
"...every year, the Avars came to the Slavs to spend the winter, took wives of the Slavs and their daughters to his bed."
In the year 623, the Slavs revolted and created their own state on the territory of modern Czech Republic and Lower Austria. Three years later the defeat of the Avars caused the army of the Byzantine Empire, but later, they defeated the Bulgarians and "the sun" khanate began to roll.
After an unsuccessful campaign against Constantinople Avar nobles split into factions that sought to sit on the throne of his Challenger. In the year 640 of Dalmatia they pushed the ferocious Croats and Avar possessions reduced to the limits of modern Hungary. The warriors of the khanate gradually ran out of steam and lost its zeal for war.
In the Byzantine chronicle IX recorded the conversation of the old Russian soldier and a Bulgarian Khan Krum. Lord of the Bulgarians asked the enemy, why their power was lost, and the warriors lost their militancy. Avar said:
"Initially, because of a quarrel, deprived Kagan truthful and advisers, the government fell into the hands of wicked men. Then had been corrupted by judges who had to defend before the people the truth, but instead fraternized with the hypocrites and thieves; the abundance of wine gave rise to drunkenness, and the Avars, weakened physically, and lost his mind. Finally went to the hobby trade: the Avars became traders, deceived one another, brother sold brother. This, my Lord, and became the source of our shameful misfortune".
To add to the words of the old warrior nothing. The Slavs called the terrible conquerors abrami and compared them with the mighty giants. In the "tale of bygone years" the chronicler wrote:
"Was obry body high and mind are proud, and destroyed their God, remeasure everything, there is not a single abrina".
About their oppressors, the Slavs did not forget Russia went saying "died as OBR". It meant that after death the person is not left offspring and heritage. The history of Russia over it hung the threat of the great steppe. Centuries later, after the Avar of there coming a new conqueror in the face of Mongolian nomads, which I repeat Avar experience, but on a larger scale.