5 prominent personalities who became victims of the InquisitionPictolic
May 15, 1252, Pope innocent IV published the bull "ad extirpanda", which allowed to torture those who were suspected of heresy. So opened up a bloody page of the Inquisition. For 6 centuries, until it existed, millions of people were undesirable and were executed or ended his life in exile. Among them many seminal personalities whose names will never fade in the pages of history.
Joan of Arc (1412-1431)
The legendary Joan of Arc was a commoner, which at the age of 13, began to appear in the visions of the saints. Raging hundred years war, and the voices allegedly encouraged Joan to go cap in hand to the heir to the throne of Charles VII, and convince him to attack the English and to expel them from French lands.
There was a prophecy that God would send the Savior of France in the image of the young virgin. So when Jeanne had an audience with the king and interrogations convinced him that it sent a higher power, the girl was entrusted the management of troops. In white armor riding a white steed Jeanne really was like an angel, God's messenger. The maid of Orleans, demonstrating remarkable for a young woman of ability, have scored one victory after another, its army has been more and more people, inspired by the Holy warriors.
In 1430, Jeanne was captured. The British to justify their defeat, accused her of having ties with the devil and handed over to the Inquisition. The girl was forced to recant his "errors", put the mark of the heretics and may 30, 1431 was burned at the stake, tied to a pole in the town square of Rouen. After 25 years at the request of Charles VII, who did not lift a finger to rescue Jeanne, the process was revised and miserable to be innocent.
Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)
Neapolitan philosopher Giordano Bruno is actively popularized the ideas of Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus, who developed in his writings the concept of the heliocentric system of the world were persecuted by the Church, but still was not convicted. The fate of his successor was more tragic.
Developing the theory of Copernicus, Bruno put forward the idea of the unity of the Universe and the plurality of inhabited worlds. But the Inquisition pursued him rather than for the scientific views and for criticism of conventional beliefs about the afterlife. Furthermore, he called religion a force that causes war, strife and evils of society. Such clergy could not forgive.
In 1592 the Italian grabbed and eight years thrown into the dungeons. Torture urged him to back down, but Bruno stayed true to himself. The court issued a death sentence. Having ascended the scaffold, he said: "Burn — does not mean to deny! Ages to come will appreciate me and understand!" After two and a half centuries on the square Campo dei Fiori, where the execution took place, erected the statue of Giordano Bruno.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
The heliocentric system, as we know, was true, so over time many scientists had come to her. Including the outstanding Italian physicist, astronomer and mathematician Galileo Galilei. For defending heretical ideas in 1633 he was put on trial.
The process lasted only two months. Galileo was treated relatively gently due to the fact that he was patronized by Pope Paul V. Historians believe that the scientist, that is, actively cooperated with the investigation and quickly recanted his ideas. So the legend that after the trial Galileo shouted sacramental: "And still it moves!" — questioned.
Page from record of interrogation of Galileo Galilei with his signature.
Nevertheless physics is still sentenced to life imprisonment. But later the punishment was replaced by house arrest, and the rest of his life Galileo spent under the supervision of the Inquisition.
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
Unlike Galileo, the poet Dante was a zealous fighter for his beliefs. He regularly attended Church, honored Ministers, but, as a true humanist, could not agree with the harsh sentences that the Lord makes sinners. Among which, in his opinion, a lot of decent people.
In his great poem "the divine Comedy", written in the first person, Dante pities gluttons, pagans, prophets, and sometimes his compassion is so great that he can't hold back the tears. Naturally, such a condemnation of the divine will could not fail to irritate the Inquisition. In addition, the description of the trip to purgatory was pure heresy, because the doctrine of purgatory was introduced by the Church much later.
Dante was objectionable because he openly criticized the Pope and was an active participant in the political struggle in Florence. Inquisitors persecuted the poet, and in 1302 he was forced to leave his hometown.
Jan HUS (1369-1415)
In the XV century in Europe began the era known as the reformation against the Catholic Church and papal authority. One of the first prominent figures of this movement was the Czech theologian Jan HUS. He went through the cities and lectures, exposing the feudal lords and the clergy.
Gradually the influence of HUS in people's minds was so great that the Pope issued a special bull, otluchalsya Czech priest from the Church. His preaching was banned, but Gus continued his educational activities.
In 1414 he was summoned to the Council of the German Constanta, ensuring complete security. But it was enough thinker to come to the city, as he was arrested and put in prison of the Holy Inquisition, where he spent seven months. Even under torture, Gus had not repented, for which he was sentenced to be burned. A fire built in the Plaza nearby. When the fire has started, some old lady threw into the fire a bundle of firewood. "Holy simplicity" — bitterly said Gus.