The sun and cancer: advice from the oncologist about how to protect themselves from melanoma in the summer heatPictolic
Already for anybody not a secret that walking under the hot sun or a long vacation on the beach can be dangerous to humans. Indeed, because of exposure to sunlight often develop melanoma — the most aggressive and common form of cancer, which is prone to rapid progression.
Since we all actually fall into the risk group, it makes sense to learn about this disease more. What is melanoma how to diagnose and how to protect yourself from melanoma in the heat of summer, read our article.
What is melanoma?
Melanoma is a malignant tumor that develops from melanocytes — pigment cells that produce melanin. Usually the cancer appears in the skin, rarely on the mucous membranes or the retina of the eye. But, in any case, despite its danger, melanoma amenable to surgical removal. It's a pretty simple and quick procedure, which, if timely can save a patient's life.
As we have said, melanoma most often develops from sunlight, and this happens in the following way. In science there are three ranges of UV radiation of the solar spectrum, which depend on the wavelength. The shortest rays UF-C is completely safe for humans, because the ozone layer almost reaches the surface of the Earth. The rays UF-B and UF-A has penetrate the atmosphere and affect the human skin an impact. UF-B — short-wave radiation, which has great energy and leaves the skin with severe burns. UF-A, on the contrary, practically does not burn, but instead penetrates deep into the cellular layers of the skin where it causes photo-ageing, cancer, and melanoma.
Methods of diagnosis
Since melanoma usually manifested on the skin, can be used to diagnose yourself. Immediately after you notice strange growths on your body immediately consult your doctor. Statistics shows that in 90% of cases of the disease identified in its early stages, is highly manageable.
So here's what factors do you need to pay attention, conducting self-examination:
Naturally, moles should not grow in size, deformed or bleed.
Who is at risk?
As we already wrote above, virtually all people are at risk, because they live under the sun. But there is a group of people, which especially should be wary of a long stay under sun rays.
Depending on the color of skin scientists identify six skin phototypes. Representatives of the first and second red — haired and fair-haired, with freckles and skin "the color of sour cream". As a rule, these people are very difficult to achieve a beautiful chocolate tan, as after prolonged sun exposure on their skin appear burned, they become "red as crayfish".
It is the representatives of these two groups should be wary ultravioleta radiation. 90% of patients with melanoma — the people of these categories. The remaining 10% of cases hereditary.
How to protect yourself?
Many people neglect sunscreen and think its only purpose is to increase or decrease tanning. In fact, this cosmetic product is necessary to protect against UV rays. Though its effectiveness in preventing skin cancer and not proven 100%, extra precaution never hurts.
In addition, you should limit time spent in the scorching sun. This is especially true of those people who are at risk. Also doctors recommend to give up going to the tanning bed, wear long clothing, a hat or Panama, necessarily have to use sunglasses.
How to choose sunscreen
When choosing a sunscreen, pay attention to the labeling of UVA and UVB rays. The first means that the product protects the skin from the rays that trigger melanoma. In the second case, cream saves only from the rays UF-In range, that is, from sunburn.
Sunscreen should be applied on all exposed skin, including the eyelids. It is best to do this 20-30 minutes before sun exposure. Also do not forget that every 2-3 hours, after taking a shower, swimming in the sea, etc., a layer of cream to update.
If you follow all these rules, sunburn at the beach will be much safer. Scientists also suggest to choose to stay on the shore needed time — early morning or evening. At noon the intensity of solar radiation is about 10 times higher than at 9:00 or 15:00.
Also, don't forget to regularly inspect your moles and in the case of lesions on the body, to go to the doctor who will be able to perform additional diagnostics.
Be healthy and enjoy right!