"Morning of the Streltsy execution": as Peter and I staged in red square bloodbath

In 1881 the artist Vasily Surikov graduated from the painting "Morning of the Streltsy execution". It depicts Tsar Peter I, taking part in executions against soldiers who rebelled against his innovations. The scale of the violence of that fateful morning shocked Muscovites surprise which blood and death was difficult. Young Peter did not spare anyone and personally chopped the heads of the rebels.

"Morning of the Streltsy execution": as Peter and I staged in red square bloodbath

During the stay of Peter I Great Embassy in Europe, four regiments of Moscow Streltsy totaling over 2 thousand people revolted. Archers in the capital was a serious organized force that could impose rulers of their opinion. During the war they participated in campaigns and in time of peace lived with their families in separate villages and performed guard and police functions in order of duty.

"Morning of the Streltsy execution": as Peter and I staged in red square bloodbathNikolai Dmitriev-Orenburgsky "the Tsarina Natalya Kirillovna shows rebellious Streltsy, Prince Ivan"

For the service, which was inherited from father to son, the archers received a salary and various benefits. In their free time they engaged in trade and crafts, which has created a bond between them with the Cossacks, not with ordinary soldiers. The cause of the riot was the reduction of the size of salary that was delayed fatigue from the military campaigns of the young king and the domination of foreign officers appointed to senior army posts.

"Morning of the Streltsy execution": as Peter and I staged in red square bloodbathAlexey Korzukhin "the Archers dragged from the Palace of Ivan Naryshkin. While Peter comforts his mother, Princess Sophia watching with satisfaction"

The result of the uprising was the battle of new Jerusalem monastery 17 Jun 1989 in which the Royal Governor with new soldiers regiments broke the Streltsy guard. In the battle killed 22 rebel, and the others were arrested and imprisoned in the cellars of the monastery of the resurrection.

Under torture, the archers admitted that he wanted the throne to the Empress Sophia, sister of Peter's father. In 1682, the Streltsy rebels did Sophia leader for the young Peter and her half-brother Ivan, who died in 1696.

"Morning of the Streltsy execution": as Peter and I staged in red square bloodbathAmong the archers was a rumor that Peter was "Germanized" renounced the Orthodox faith or even died in Europe

During the investigation, the boyar Aleksei Shein was executed 56 of the organizers of the uprising, 140 people were beaten with whips and sent to Siberia, in 1965 people were dispatched to various prisons and monasteries. Queen Sophia was removed from power and forcibly tonsured a nun.

After returning from Europe Peter I was dissatisfied with the light sentences Shein and appointed a re-investigation. Archers that survived, have begun to bring to Moscow, where they built 14 of the torture hut. Questioning was headed by the head of the order investigation by the Prince Fyodor Romodanovsky.

"Morning of the Streltsy execution": as Peter and I staged in red square bloodbathUnderwent tortures wives, sisters and parents of archers. Peter I personally interviewed sister Sophia, who is not guilty. The king was so angry at rifle army, which is almost a half century was the backbone of the authority of his ancestors that banned the word "Sagittarius".

30 Sep 1689 was the first penalty of the 201st Sagittarius, which was accused of trying to raise a rebellion, kill the boyars and destroy the German settlement. Five archers the Tsar Peter personally cut off the head. The corpses of the executed five months removed from the area, and the three rebels amused at the Windows of the cells of the Queen Sophia. To intimidate people Tsar Peter ordered to bring archers to death in a black sleigh, decorated with black ribbons.

"Morning of the Streltsy execution": as Peter and I staged in red square bloodbath

Ilya Repin, "Princess Sophia in the Novodevichy convent". Outside the cell the artist has depicted a hanged man Sagittarius

During the movement sentenced to death, the rebels had to hold in their hands lighted candles. The executions continued throughout October. The German diplomat Johann Korb wrote that in one day 500 Streltsy minor sons, which saved from execution a young age, was disfigured. The Imperial executioners cut off their noses and ears, after which the rebels were sent into exile.

"Morning of the Streltsy execution": as Peter and I staged in red square bloodbathA fragment of the painting "Morning of the Streltsy execution". Sentenced to death is shown with candles in their hands

Korb recalled one of the executions in the residence of kings, the village of Transfiguration, so:

"Morning of the Streltsy execution": as Peter and I staged in red square bloodbath

A fragment of the painting "Morning Strelets'execution"

The German wrote that the nobles are poorly managed with axes and their clumsy strikes were the archers for more suffering. The investigation continued in the winter of 1699, when through a meat grinder of the investigation after seven hundred people, of which 282 minors.

"Morning of the Streltsy execution": as Peter and I staged in red square bloodbath

A fragment of the painting "Morning of the Streltsy execution". Peter looks at sentenced to death

When Peter went to build a fleet at Voronezh shipyard, the investigation was conducted by the Prince Fyodor Romodanovsky. It without penalty sent into exile 600 archers. This decision caused discontent of the king, who returned to Moscow and continued execution. This time Peter decided to hang the rebels on the walls of the Kremlin and Novodevichy convent. Then appeared in the capital saying: "That neither prong, the Archer".

Wives archers were forbidden to work and charity that has doomed them to poverty and starvation. The land of the rebels received the king's favorites, Alexander Menshikov, field Marshal Boris Sheremetev, count Fyodor Golovin. Part of the farms given to officers of guards regiments. Strelets regiments, which had not supported the rebellion, were disbanded, and the officers in them the archers moved to the common soldiers.

"Morning of the Streltsy execution": as Peter and I staged in red square bloodbathThe investigation lasted until 1707, and the last executed was one of the leaders of the uprising, Artemy Maslov, 9 years old was tortured. The only mercy was the Archer named Stepan eagle, who was distinguished for heroic strength and physique. When he went on the block, then go ahead and just rolled the severed head of a comrade.

"Morning of the Streltsy execution": as Peter and I staged in red square bloodbath

Stepan said Peter, who admired the courage of a rebel. According to legend, the king, and said, what a pity to translate this breed. He pardoned the Archer and ordered him to enroll a soldier in the guards. About breed the king was not mistaken. Stepan eagle was the future grandfather of Catherine's favorites — Gregory and Alexei Orlov.

Keywords: Rebellion | Death | Moscow | Peter | Torture | Russia

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