As the mosquito bites, and why a mosquito bite itches
We all know that "communication" with mosquitoes at any time of the day — a very dubious pleasure. Annoying high-pitched squeak, constant flickering before the face and most importantly — annoying itchy bites, made mosquitoes one of the major evils of a summer night. These flying insects can easily ruin a picnic or deprived of sleep, and then a long time to remind myself sometimes combed bites. But why the mosquito to torment us itch, because you could just drink blood and fly away?
Science has long been known that feed on blood, only female mosquitoes. Males of this species are real strict vegans and only eat nectar and plant SAP. But the female needs a source of high quality protein and lipids in order to successfully lay eggs and give birth to a new mosquito offspring. Blood is a concentrated and accessible source of nutrients, which has everything you need for the insect.
For the discovery of their purpose, the female mosquito uses multiple complex mechanisms, which are the envy of the most innovative weapons systems. First, the insect sees the potential victim by copious carbon dioxide that you breathe out all warm-blooded. This ability can be called early detection.
After finding a cloud of carbon dioxide, the mosquito uses heat detection sensors and chemical analyzers that help to make precise pointing. Komar guided by 72 olfactory receptors on the antennae, of which 27 were focused on the recognition of the substances included in the composition of human sweat or other mammals.
Nature spared no effort and imagination to extremely effectively equip these bloodsuckers. Those heat sensors that other insects are used to protect from cold, mosquitoes have converted to the search of warm-blooded prey. Scientists from Harvard have determined that the mosquitoes have heat sensors are set up accurately and record the temperature in the range from +30 to +37 degrees Celsius. That is, the imager is ideal for mosquito search of warm-blooded animals and humans including.
To damage the skin, the mosquito uses a special teeth — maxilla that insect act confidently, but be careful not to get a nerve ending. To hold during this responsible moment the skin, the mosquito uses of mandible — mandible. This is similar to how a tailor cuts the cloth in the hole with the scissors, holding the fabric with one hand.
When the hole is prepared, the course is the labrum is thin and durable probe adapted to search for a blood vessel and puncture. Once the source of the blood was found liquid at the tip, which is a bundle of tubes, enters the stomach of the mosquito. Thus the name "blood-sucking" is technically wrong, because nothing the mosquito sucks the blood itself is fed into the cavity of his body under natural pressure.
To facilitate the flow of blood, the mosquito uses a special tongue hypopharynx, creating a vacuum-like lips of a baby sucking its mother's breast. But abundant meal of the insect would not be possible if not for the system of protection against blood clotting. Hypopharynx in the wound enters the saliva of the mosquito contains the coagulants.
It coagulants, do not give the blood clot, cause immune response of our body. In place of the ingestion of foreign material immediately headed white blood cells, platelets and antibodies that protect the body from outside interference.
In the process clashes with the foreign proteins and there is the same swelling that is red and unbearably itchy. And that's not even the most serious reaction, because sometimes mosquito bites cause allergies with great inflammation and fever, to contend with already doctors with the use of special drugs.
As for the annoying squeak, he is also part of the reproductive system. For us it's just perelivaniya the sounds of wings moving with great frequency. But males on this peep can distinguish Mature, ready to play females too young, does not represent for them interest.
And we can only confuse precision instruments insects, hiding their odors with the help of special tools, or come up with sophisticated methods of mass murder sadistic bloodsuckers.
Keywords: Mosquitoes | Blood | Summer | Insects | Search | Reproduction | Bite