Oneida is a commune of free love in the Puritan society of the Victorian eraPictolic
Today, the name Onida few people say something. It is a utopian place appeared in new York in 1848 and lasted 20 years. Given that it was the nineteenth century, the existence of this group, in General, very difficult to believe, but the fact remains — in the Victorian world there was a place where women could wear pants and to choose a husband, and sex was only need the mutual consent of the partners.
Utopian commune Oneida appeared thanks to one man named John Humphrey Noyes. Politician, social activist and religious leader Noyes is ambiguous personality with a very unusual fate.
In 20 years, John has abandoned the prospect of becoming a lawyer and decided to devote himself to religion. He entered the Seminary, where he was immediately the mentors for the count. No, the young Noyes was not a bully or a negligent student, his case was much more unpleasant.
The young man immersed himself in theological questions, but so deep that he had a lot of ideas and questions that he shared with classmates and teachers. Often John staged a protracted controversy concerning the basic issues of sin and morality.
A little later, throwing doubt of the Noyes led to the emergence of their own religious concepts, which can be precisely described with the following quote from the writings of theologian:
John Noyes, who decided that he was now on the short leg with the Creator, didn't put up with in Seminary, and soon he with a snap shot of the "Alma mater" with the deprivation of pastoral licenses. I must say that the failed cleric't be too upset with this event.
In the mind of Noyes was already a solid Foundation for the new Christian faith, or rather sect. Having attended to the calculation date of the second coming of the Messiah, John identified that it took place in the year 70 of our era, and so humanity has already entered a new era of creativity and happiness.
In his teaching Noyes said that a person can get rid of sin in life and the purpose of his "Piatninskoe Bible school" was the perfection of man. Spiritual mentor and had a special look at family values. In 1844, the community had introduced group marriage and practiced saved intercourse (without ejaculation and dry orgasm), designed to control the birth rate without the use of contraceptives.
In the 27 years of John's life a significant event occurred — he married Harriet Holton. The first five years the couple lived according to the accepted in the Victorian era marriage canons are not using protection. The result was the birth six years of five children, of whom survived only one child.
All the labor was for Harriet is very heavy and Noyes showed unprecedented at the time care of his wife, offering her some time to live separately. This has changed their family relationships for the better and brought great relief to spouses.
But abstinence from sex are not attracted to the young man, therefore, John began to study different techniques that could help people effectively control the birth rate. Along the way, thoroughly new Christian denominations preached unheard of in the nineteenth century things. He said that any conception should be desirable, and therefore planned a man and a woman.
Municipality Oneida born from "Piatninskoe Bible school" after one of the most ardent admirers of the ideas of Noyes, named Jonathan Bart, acquired a plot of land near the river Oneida Creek, on the border districts Oneida and Madison. Bart is a sponsor of the commune — he freely allowed Noyes to build on their land, a new world with very unusual morals.
In the municipality, based on the banks Oneida Creek, there was free love. Its members practiced group marriage without much formalities and conventions. Simply put, the Communards were able to engage with each other love without limits, relying only on mutual consent.
Older men Onida taught the tricks of safe sex to the young. Love was supposed to refrain from ejaculation, which was achieved by strict self-control. Trained youths of the commune on the older women, have already entered into menopause.
The technique saved intercourse was very effective. It is known that in the municipality for 20 years of its existence was recorded only 12 unplanned pregnancies. Those men who have not mastered sexual techniques or are unable to hold back, in Oneida mercilessly ridiculed. The teachings of Noyes, to have an unplanned child, it was also embarrassing as being caught masturbating.
Taught the basics of sexual life and young girls. These young ladies gave older men. John Noyes himself never refused the opportunity to conduct such mutually beneficial activity with some young resident of the commune.
Those who knew about the commune Oneida the words of others, were convinced that there is sexual immorality and sin svalny. In fact, in the community, it was subordinated to a strict order, more thoughtful than in the ordinary society of the era. All relationships and communications were documented and permission for sex was given by the special Committee at the meeting.
Communards lived in a big house, but everyone in his small room, therefore, for morality to follow was easy. Sex was encouraged, but attachment and attempts men and women to link their fate was banned. It was impossible even to stay the night away — all dispersed by nightfall, according to their humble abodes.
Municipality Oneida became one of the earliest and most radical in the history of attempts to change the role of women in society. The important point was that the woman who gave birth to the child, was not responsible for his upbringing. The baby became a child of the whole commune and educated, and provided together.
Unusual was that the woman in the society created by Noyes, could choose their sexual partner and decide to enter into relationship with a man or not. Ladies can do any job they like and afford, including a male. Rules regarding clothing in Oneida was not a resident of the commune could wear anything, including pants and men's pants.
Formally, the sex was dominated by freedom of choice, but if the head Onide thought it would be better to sleep with one of his close associates, it was better to obey. In addition, the guru never missed an opportunity to hold a kind of selection combining in time pairs persistent in the belief of members of the community and newbies or doubters.
Ten years in the community Oneida conducted a kind of eugenic experiment, which Noyes gave the name "stirpiculture".This word was derived from stirps — "rhizome" and culture — "culture". During the decade of the adopted rule that the planned children are raised by the commune, and born as a result men blunder — by the parents themselves.
Revenues of the commune were very limited, and this approach has forced men and women to behave prudently in bed. The purpose of the commune was the birth of a healthy, strong and highly spiritual offspring. Chapter Onide himself heavily involved in this issue, leaving at least a dozen offspring born out of wedlock.
Noyes himself had to choose, who of the men and women to admit to participation in the experiment. Before that, nominations were presented for the discussion the Committee decided to allow to have children or not. Despite this, the final word was still for a teacher who could approve the decision of the Council or not.
Considering applicants for procreation, basically considered their moral qualities and adherence to the ideas of the commune, and only then discussed the health issues. Born in Oneida child had no attachment to the biological parents — it applies to all members of the commune as a family.
Educated members of society were trained and groomed a new generation of Communards, and their food and other needs cared for together. What future waited for the children born and brought up in stirpiculture environment? Contrary to expectations, almost all of them become decent members of society, found themselves in life and lived a decent life.
The reason for the success of children born in the commune Oneida, lurked not in genetic selection, as argued by some researchers. The children of the community just get more attention and care than conventional Victorian family of that era.
Municipality Oneida flourished until John Humphrey Noyes decided to retire and handed its management in the hands of the son, Theodore Noyes. A change of government led to a serious split within the miniature society. As a result, some residents Oneida betrayed the ideals of the founder of the teachings, and returned to traditional marriage.
At about this time began to subside, the pressure on the municipality by the American authorities. John Noyes was accused of child molestation, that, most likely, took place. To avoid a trial and imprisonment, she was quite elderly Noyes had to flee to Canada.
Without the main ideological inspirer Oneida could not exist, and in 1878 the municipality was dissolved and most of its members fled abroad. Some Communards decided not to leave their homes have Oneida Creek and engaged in the Commerce, creating the joint-stock company. Most of the pairs formed with the participation of Noyes and his Committee, strangely enough, survived and lived a long happy family life.
History has known and less successful experiences of creating a religious commune. For example, the community of Black Jesus from Papua New Guinea have ended very bad (nothing good happens when you practice pedophilia and cannibalism).