This branch of medicine as transplantation, there are more than a hundred years. Over this time there have been many successful and unsuccessful transplants of organs and even entire parts of the body. But all the while scientists are more worried about one question — how to transplant a human head. This operation differs from the transplantation of hand or heart, because the head — the seat of the brain, and hence the identity of the person. If such an operation today and what challenges will be faced scientist who decided to spend it?
The pioneer in transplantation goals, however, not man, is an American scientist Charles Claude Guthrie. In 1908 he made the first-ever transplant of the head from one dog to another. However, animal-to the recipient left his native head, and transplantirovannam attached to the neck slightly higher upside down.
Circulation is organized so that the blood is first passed through the head of a donor, and then got into his own head of the animal. The operation was very difficult, as the road was every second. Since the separation of the head from the vessels of the body donor to restore circulation it's only been 20 minutes.
Guthrie has achieved incredible success, he was able to capture some movement in the transplanted the head and even the weak response to stimuli. Unfortunately, the experiment had to be soon interrupted, and the animal put to sleep a few hours after the operation the dog has deteriorated and the scholar, out of pity, has introduced a two-headed animal is a deadly drug.
The second experiment of this kind, is much more successful, made by the Soviet scientist Vladimir Demikhov in 1954. The surgeon helped the most advanced at that time, advances in medical technology — transplant were used machine, stitching the veins and arteries. Through the use of technology, to restore blood flow in the transplanted a dog's head managed much faster.
Only Professor Demikhov transplanted 20 goals puppies and adult dogs. Transplantability truth was not only the head, but part of the chest of the animal with the front legs, lungs and esophagus. These creepy monsters lived long enough — from 2 to 6 days. The most successful was a transplant, after which an adult dog with "attached" to her as a puppy, he lived for a month!
The next breakthrough in the field of head transplant was done only in 1970. Under the supervision of a neurosurgeon Robert white, a team of American doctors transplanted the head of a monkey. It was a classic transplantation, as both donor and recipient were beheaded completely.
In the transplant process, it was important to prevent blood loss, so all the vessels after dissection immediately had been seared with a special apparatus, and blood circulation in the head, not giving advance of brain death, provided sophisticated equipment.
This experiment was unconditional victory of modern science. Monkey head transplant was not only auditory and visual perception, but ate with a spoon, and a few days later even tried to bite the doctor's hand. This animal also spent a brief period, but even this short life he proved that transplantation of a human head is possible.
Inspired by the success of Dr. white predicted in the near future a head transplant from person to person and stated that modern science is quite ready for such complex operations. Despite the most optimistic forecasts, the first transplant of a human head produced only in 2017.
The first one was Dr. Sergio Canavero and his donor and recipient were dead bodies. The scientist spent too risky, but nevertheless technically difficult operation in China, and assisted him with medical experts from research centers and hospitals of China.
After transplantation of the head of the corpse doctor Canavero announced that everything was perfect and he managed to combine not only the blood vessels, and the spinal cord and spine. However, some of the luminaries of science, spoke about this breakthrough skeptical.
Dr. Jen Shaoping, Canavero his assistant, later said in an interview that calling the surgery on corpses transplantation is not even a stretch. According to Chinese specialists, which has been demonstrated by the scientific world Italian neurosurgeon is just a model of the real surgery.
Sergio Canavero did not stop there and continued to do transplant the heads of animals — mice and dogs. It has developed its own technology for connecting the spinal cord with the aid of polyethylene glycol, who discovered the ability to restore neural connections.
Dr. Canavero is scheduled to take place in 2017 in China transplant the head of a living person. He had even patient-volunteer realize the entire risk of the enterprise, but nevertheless wanted to be the first. This man is a Russian programmer Valery Spiridonov, who suffers from spinal muscular atrophy.
Preparation for surgery was very noisy and caused a lot of debate in the scientific community and among the public. In the end, when all was ready, transplant just did not happen. A clear explanation from Dr. Sergio Canavero has not appeared, but many believe that a scientist just retreated, realizing that it is not yet ready for this important operation.
There are those who believe that the surgeon did not prevent the technical aspects and the ethical aspects of such an operation. So far it is unclear who with a full head transplant is considered the donor and who is the recipient, because the body is 80% of the human. Most are inclined to think that the head is more important as it is the brain.
It's hard to imagine how to behave in the brain, transplanted onto another body. How will the establishment of relations, adaptation, orientation to other rhythms, biochemical factors and features of the functioning of internal organs. Recent studies have shown that the identity of the person responsible enteric nervous system located in the gut.
95% of serotonin, a major neurotransmitter, forming a mood, is produced in the gut. There is also a unique microbiome that is responsible for the identity of the person who each of us is an individual. If "friends" alien brain with the body? It is believed that violation of the compatibility will lead to previously unknown kind of madness. While the answer to this question is not received, the transplantation of the head would be unlikely.