"You're asking me to take out the trash, but do it without respect": the fragrant business of the American mafiaPictolic
We all know that in the sphere of interests of mafia, which includes drug and arms trade, prostitution and smuggling. However, the underworld is more multifaceted than we can imagine. It sounds strange, but business is also a major source of enrichment of the mafia families.
The United States, where only 5 percent of the world's population, produce 30 percent of the debris. Until the late nineteenth century, the problem of cleaning and recycling was not an acute — waste was simply dumped into rivers or piled in heaps. But the active development of industry and population growth forced the city authorities to think on the problem of large and medium — sized cities in the United States began to sink in the garbage and it was a real disaster.
Despite repeated conversations and promises, the municipal authorities do not hurry to invest money in the disposal of waste, as this occupation was considered to be initially unprofitable. The first investment in this business, strangely enough, began to make a mafia family Cosa nostra became rich during the "dry law" on the production and smuggling of alcohol.
The greatest contribution to the solution of the garbage question was made in the mid 1920's, the Gambino clan. To help you understand how firmly family occupied this niche, it should be said that in the early 1990-ies the main man trash industry USA remained former personal driver, Carlo Gambino, James Failla.
Start was made in the distant 20-years — then was signed the first contracts for the removal and disposal of waste. Success in business is directly connected with the friendship of trade unionists and mafia — in the early twentieth century, the leaders of workers ' organizations often turned to families for help, mostly physical. Soldiers of the underworld helped fight strikebreakers and defend their point of view from a position of strength at rallies and strikes.
This led to the fact that in the early 30-ies of all the leaders of the trade unions of scavengers in new Jersey were occupied by people connected with the mafia. They easily entered the offices of the Directors of factories and municipal officials and appointed interesting the price of garbage removal. If the head started to stretch, then immediately began the strike of the dustmen with all its aromatic effects.
But it was not all the problems associated with waste. The mob health inspectors had been to the obstinate and recalcitrant Directors, officials and wrote out huge fines. After such "educational work", the Manager himself came to pay homage to the bosses of trade unions and agree to the most extortionate terms.
Close cooperation with the Inspectorate for waste management allowed the unions and the mafia to feel complete masters of the situation. If before the landfills were organized far outside the city, the assumption in the business of the mafia collectors became easier to negotiate by the method of bribes or threats about placing a landfill right on the outskirts. This greatly reduced transport costs, but on the impressions of people living at garbage dumps ambitious gangsters and their business partners didn't care.
Members of the Gambino family
Appearing first in new Jersey, such schemes have to work in most major American cities — new York, Chicago, Detroit. Of course, in a garbage mess the police intervened and the members of the clan Gambino began the hunt. However, on the side of the mafia has been the best lawyers, bought witnesses and scare tactics, so police measures nor to no avail.
John Gotti, in the second half of the twentieth century who headed the Gambino family, was repeatedly charged with racketeering and other serious crimes, but every time I came out of the courtroom a winner. Teflon Baron, and it was under this nickname knew Gotti in the USA, surely repulsed the attack of the tax police, unsuccessfully tried to accuse him of tax evasion and fraud. No one was able to prove that the annual income of the head of the richest mafia families of the United States is more than 30 thousand dollars a year, which has declared John, who was a simple plumber in the municipal office.
The success of law enforcement agencies have come only in the early 1990s, when prosecutors Rudolf Giuliani and Michael Chertoff managed to obtain the testimony of Sammy "buck" Gravano — one of the henchmen John Gotti. Due to noise Gravano managed to put the head of the Gambino family in prison for life. John Gotti died of cancer in prison Springfield, and the position of the mafia in the trash business has seriously deteriorated.
Business is a highly profitable business. Only in new York, the turnover of the industry in the late 90's was $ 1 billion dollars a year. Companies associated with the mafia, catered to about 250 thousand objects ranging from the Empire State Building and finishing small cafe on the outskirts of the metropolis.
USA is the largest manufacturer of garbage in the world
After the defeat of the garbage Empire Gambino rates for garbage collection began to coordinate with the Office of consumer markets, but it was only the appearance of legality. In fact, the mafia bosses of the unions exhibited by the customers prices by 40 to 50 percent higher than agreed, and they were forced to agree.
With those who were not satisfied with this situation, the mob brutally massacred. In 1989, the gangsters family Luchese shot two carriers who refused to work at inflated prices. He's garbage market was closed to outsiders and work in this area could only be those who received good mafia family.
In January 1993, the garbage-disposal company Browning-Ferris Industries (BFI) of Houston tried to go to the market in new York. After signing the first contract, the Director of the company discovered on their lawn cut the dog's head in the mouth of which was enclosed a note with the text "Welcome to new York".
But this time Luchese the wrong crowd — one of the owners of the BFI, William Ruckelshaus in the past held the position of attorney General and worked for a long time in high positions in the FBI. Another in his place, fled back to Houston and forgot the way to new York, but not for him. Ruckelshaus hooked his numerous connections and began to squeeze Cosa nostra with a garbage market of the metropolis and tried to crush business for themselves.
Mayor David Dinkins was too timid to become an ally in the fight against mafia families, but of the Manhattan district attorney Robert Morgenthau who once made a career in the war with the Gambino clan, embraced former colleague.
Was developed by a secret operation with the introduction of the human Morgenthau in the trash gang. The agent called Paul Vassil took a position managing the business center at Water Street, 55. The building belonged to the Fund for Alabama Retirement Systems, whose owner could not refuse the district attorney. The newly-minted Manager attended a course of lectures on his specialty and head of the Department of 43 people.
The business center of Alabama Retirement Systems Fund for Water Street, 55
In a short time the agent became an authority in real estate circles and his expertise in real estate matters are often published in professional journals. Angelo and Vincent Ponte, who controlled the garbage disposal on Water Street, invited Wassila for lunch — I was approaching the deadline for a new annual contracts for building maintenance, which he ran.
Vessel refused the price proposed by the mafia, and announced the beginning of the tender, which was attended by the Houston BFI. If Alabama Retirement Systems pay garbage to a criminal group for the export of waste for 100 thousand dollars per month, the BFI put a price of 120 thousand dollars a year.
The Italians met again with the agent and asked for a quote of the Houston company. He went to meet them and told the gangsters all the information they need. Angelo and Vincent Ponte immediately offered Paul Vassili a bribe of 10 thousand dollars for the preservation of the contract. Of course, the conversation was carefully taped and Morgenthau appeared incontestable proofs of criminal activity of the Italians.
Landfill in upstate new York
Judging by the fact that neither Angelo nor Vincent were behind bars, they began to cooperate with the FBI and passed all the criminal schemes that were related. Interesting, but the agent, who worked under the name Paul Vassil became involved in the business associated with real estate that immediately after the operation is complete quit the force and started the real estate business.
Mafia clans have ceased to exert pressure on former clients, but started a covert war against BFI. Early in the morning the machine came on the objects of the BFI and took the garbage out. They waited nearby and as soon as an empty garbage truck Houston-based company was leaving back home, the trash was back in place. Immediately after this came the health inspector vpisyvanii master overflowing garbage site a serious penalty.
"The smelly Dutch" is a barge with new York garbage, leaving the city
Cars belonging to mafia groups, was forced off the road by a BFI garbage trucks. Come down to the fact that the machinery went to the city accompanied by police cars. But not all recognized the rightness of Ruckelshaus and Morgenthau — many in the city believed that a large Corporation simply press a family business with several Italian families engaged in garbage collection generations.
Come down to the fact that Morgenthau was accused of involvement in the trash business and lobbying interests of BFI. The same fate befell the new mayor of new York Rudolph Giuliani, who, unlike his predecessor, was actively involved in fighting with Italian families.
Law and order in the matter of the garbage is still there. Under pressure from Giuliani, the city Council adopted a bill according to which each contractor before they will be admitted to the tender, checked for involvement in the mafia clans.
Garbage someone should do it, mafia or Corporation. For ordinary citizens it does not matter
This method of combating criminal schemes proved to be very effective and six months later, dozens of companies operating in the market of services has not only remained without contracts, but also lost their licenses. It seems everyone should be happy — evil is defeated and in the garbage reigned idyll. Not so — the price of the service continue to grow, as the market remained almost without competition and is controlled by corporations.
Some old customers of the companies for garbage collection with sadness state that they can't accurately determine which is better — when you are robbing the Gambino family or when sending invoices savvy youths of Browning-Ferris Industries.