The order of Malta and the Vatican – the smallest state in the worldPictolic
The famous state of Vatican city is not the only country located in the centre of Rome. Even in the Italian capital is the order of Malta, known as the Sovereign military order of the knights Hospitallers. The area of the tiny state smaller than football fields and is only 6000 square meters. The area of the Vatican and even less — only 440 square meters.
The history of the founding of the knights Hospitaller goes to the end of the XI century. The founder is the knight Pierre-gérard de Martham (Blessed Gerard). Returning from the Crusades 1099, he worried about the fate of the pilgrims. Valiant knight opened for them several hospitals in the Holy land. The purpose of the order was caring for the traveling pilgrims and protection of Jerusalem.
Knights and healers were active after they were joined by knights and warriors. Wealthy pilgrims willingly hired an armed guard from the knights Hospitaller. Their knights wore black tunics and a large white cross. Pope Paschal II granted the monastic Hospitaller order freedom from tithing, non-interference by Church and secular authorities.
The rise and fall of militant monks
Subsequently, the order of Malta has extended its influence to all European States, including Russia. The confrontation with the Muslims was not always successful. In virtue of the numerical superiority of the enemy monks had to leave Rhodes in 1522. Entrenched in Malta, the knights have established a total domination of the Mediterranean sea.
In IVвеке many members of the order were no longer religious fanatics. Capturing ships of the Ottoman Empire, they left part of the production itself. The European States have gradually reduced the investment to zero. What the order of Malta is engaged in outright piracy in the Caribbean sea. The order bought the land and property around the world. So their property was the complex of mansions in Rome.
The modern state
In the middle ages the monarchs of the different countries everywhere seized the possessions of the monks. In 1834 the headquarters of the Hospitallers moved to Rome. Today, the order is positioning itself as a separate state. Its citizens receive passports. The order of Malta supports international relations with more than a hundred countries. Many international organizations have recognized its sovereignty. The order has all the attributes of a modern state, which include the government, the Constitution, postal service, currency, and, of course, a page on Instagram and the official website.
The order of Malta has a large weight in the international arena. Therefore, its status as a state is unlikely to be the subject of discussion in the foreseeable future. A small country is open for visits every day, except weekends. On weekdays the gate is of the order of Malta are open from 9.30 to 16.00 local time. Break from 13.00 to 14.00.
Officially, the Vatican is the smallest country in the world that does not affect its importance. Its territory is so small that cannot accommodate the diplomatic missions of other countries. Because all the embassies, including Italy, located in Rome. Here is the paradox: the Embassy of Italy to the Holy see located in the capital city of Italy.
This list of paradoxes of the Vatican is not restricted. The Holy see has received the name because of the location on the Vatican hill. The official name in a literal translation from Italian sounds like "the State of the Vatican City". Linguistically, the Holy see is not identical to the Vatican. However, the name of the state appears not only in the official documents of the Vatican and the Holy see.
The history of Holiness
Vatican hill remained uninhabited until the arrival of Christianity. The ancient Romans considered this a Holy place. In a historic tenure as Papal States occupied a large part of the Peninsula. The Italian Kingdom has reshaped the territory in their favor in 1870. In 1929 Mussolini gave the Vatican the boundaries that apply in our day. Boundary, the length of 3.2 kilometers, almost always go by the defensive wall.
The state system
The Holy see controls the Vatican completely. All power is concentrated in the hands of the Pope. The government has a complex hierarchy. The entire population of the city-state is the subjects of the Vatican. Official passports have a diplomatic status of the Holy see. The Pope has the right to only one nationality. In the entire history of the Vatican twice made an exception, allowing Benedict XVI and Francis to keep a second citizenship.