The era of the great poisoning, or What is "powder the heirs"Pictolic
The late Medieval period from XV to XVII century called the era of Great geographical discoveries. But not everyone knows that it was the most violent Palace intrigues and treacherous murders with the dagger and poison.
In France the reign of "sun king" Louis XIV is considered the apotheosis of the epidemic treacherous poisoning, when life was too active a politician or a rich man, with impatient heirs, not worth a penny.
The era of Louis XIV is not only an amazing wealth of palaces and outfits, the dashing Musketeers and faerie balls. Behind the shiny facade of the upper light disappeared the constant fear of to die from a blow with a stiletto in his bedroom, shot in the alley or from the poison in his Desk.
King Louis XIV
Wives, poisoned husbands, sons, fathers, brothers to each other and so on. The life of a stranger, standing in the way, had no value at all. The so-called "powder of heirs", and to put it simply a poison, was the most popular product from voracek and healers.
The Marquis de Branville
In "the history of the famous crimes of the" French classic tells the story of the Marquise de Breville, which began with a loud "Affair of poisons".
So Dumas tells about her character, which really was an extraordinary person even at that turbulent time.
Paris in the XVII century
In his memoirs the Marquis wrote that he lost his virginity at the age of 7 and 10 already cohabited with their brothers. According to her, they had no less than three hundred cases of incest: on average, they with brothers had sex three times a week. As soon as the girl came up, the parents got rid of it by blaming the Marquis de Breville, the same Fuckers as Marie-Madeleine.
Becoming a Marchioness, she is not only not settled, but on the contrary had a ball, having the opportunity to go out and spend money spouse. The husband not only did not try to stop the depraved behavior of its second half, but on the contrary it encouraged it.
Rumors about the behavior of his daughter could not reach an influential father Marie-Madeleine and another scandalous relationship, which has been implicated captain of the Royal guard Jean de Sainte-Croix, drew him out. To teach him a disgrace to the name of lovers, the judge put the officer in the Bastille, and the daughter gave a good thrashing.
Bastille in the seventeenth century
In the XVII century, the Bastille fortress was not a stone bag with damp walls full of haggard sandalnike. Here were serving sentences of Parisian nobles, sentenced for various crimes and just bad behavior. Conditions in the fortress was quite comfortable and quite relaxed. In the dungeons of Jean de Sainte-Croix was not to grieve, and met with Italian alchemist Antonio Eksili, also known as Nikolo Egidio.
The scientist was none other than a professional poisoner and captain during his release well mastered the art of preparing poisons. Going into the wild, de Sainte-Croix equipped home laboratory, where it was possible to create poisons for all occasions.
British researcher Anna Somerset in his book "the case of the poisons: murder, infanticide and Satanism at the court of Louis XIV" casts doubt on the fact that not previously had a case with the chemical science of the guards captain just 6 weeks became an expert in toxins. Most likely, a considerable contribution to the "education" Jean made a court scholar Christoph Glaser, with whom the captain by virtue of his service at the court could interfere.
Glaser was the largest scientist-chemist of his time. In 1663 he wrote a book with the innocuous title of "Handbook of chemistry", which has gone through many editions. The Handbook was presented a lot of scientific recipes, such as healing from ailments powder from the skull of someone who died with their boots on, and the skin ointment from the urine of children 7-12 years.
Women are actively involved in the work on manufacturing and testing of the poison. She gave the captain made poisons servants and managed to distribute them in the form of medicines to patients from a hospital for the poor. Making sure that the formula works flawlessly, the Marquis decided to get rid of his father.
Poisoning the Marquise's father
SIV to the light already middle-aged judge, de Breville one stone killed two birds with one stone — get rid of the grumpy old man spoiling her and her lovers life, and became heir of the solid state. To carry out his plan of the Marquis bribed one of the servants of the father by the name of gaskon and the daily small portions I mixed the poison the old man for food.
Hurry Marie-Madeleine was nowhere, and the slow decline of the old judges might reasonably have exhausting illness. The murder was delayed for 8 months. When the father rose not again, the Marquis she began to care for him, adding the last dose of poison in his broth.
After the death of his father a large inheritance, the Marquis was unable to use it properly and quickly squandered with lovers. Left without money, the lady decided to shorten the life of the siblings, which gave to them in the service of his Valet Jean Emelina, named Lachasse (the Sidewalk).
He honorably coped with the task, with both brothers, even on his deathbed could not suspect a loyal servant to murder. After brothers the Marquis was planning to poison a nun-sister and daughter, but it prevented the fatal accident.
Jean de Sainte-Croix has long been afraid of their deadly passion, so laboriously collected all the evidence of its nefarious deeds in a special box. There were love letters, in which the lady talked about their criminal plans, vials with samples of poisons, and many other curious things. The casket stood in the captain's apartment and waited for hours and at one point he came.
Some historians believe that de Sainte-Croix inhaled toxic fumes during his experiments, others think that the Marquis has decided to get rid of too knowledgeable lover. One day the captain came down and very quickly and painfully died without having left any instructions regarding his property. As expected in this case, came to the house the priest, the notary and police officers to the inventory of the belongings of the deceased.
In the hands of the deceased was clutching a piece of paper with the words "My confession". At that time it was quite common for the dying, who failed to confess. The captain was considered a reputable man, all those present at the deathbed decided that the note contained the usual minor sins, to read the list which nobody wanted. Therefore, a note pulled from the cold hands of the deceased and threw it in the fireplace.
Box with some papers especially not attracted the attention of officials and, possibly, its contents would also have been consigned to fire without clearance, but again fate stepped in. When I went through the belongings of the deceased, his office has tried to break the servant-poisoner Jean Amelia. He was in agitated state and demanded to give him the box, insisting that it was his thing.
Fuel to the fire poured itself of the Marquis, who appeared in the police and began to demand to give the box to her. Thus, attention was drawn to the letters of the casket and its contents all plunged into horror. No investigation not required — could be immediately the arrest of the poisoner. Notes captain of the bottles and the fact that over the last couple of years, awnings successfully for her all died wealthy relatives, was enough for the gallows.
The arrest of the Marquise de Breville
Just in case the contents of the vials from the box checked on the dog, the rooster and the cat, which died in agony. Immediately after that the servant of the Marquise was seized, but she managed to escape. It was soon found in the monastery, where women are actively atone for their sins and parallel wrote those memoirs, of which we know about her tumultuous childhood and adolescence.
While the Marquis de Branville transported in a prison carriage in Paris, she has repeatedly tried to settle scores with life. Poisoner swallowed broken glass and pins, and once tried to impale himself inserted into the vagina a pointed stick. But fate would have it that all these attempts have remained without consequences, and the Marquis appeared before the Paris investigators.
Marquis tortured with water, the Gulf of her throat 16 quarts (7.5 liters)
The Marquis was tortured until, until she confessed to all their crimes, and then the king had signed her death sentence. The poisoners who was supposed to hang, but because of the noble position Marie-Madeleine, it was decided to cut off her head. In 1676 penalty poisoner was held in the square, to the delight of Parisian onlookers, and her body is burned and scattered over the city.
But it was not the end of the "Case of poisons", which had a terrible sequel. Standing before the judges, the Marquis said that half the people who know her noble people doing exactly what she is. Poisoner threatened to pull them along if you find it necessary, but did not. Louis XIV interested in this loud statement and instructed the Lieutenant-General of the Paris police, Gabriel Nicolas de La Rainey personally to investigate.
The execution on the place de Greve in Paris
General entangled the French capital by a network of spies and informants that soon came to fruition. A lawyer by the name of Perrin told de La Rainey about the fact that one party met a fortune-teller, known under the name Marie Boss. The tipsy woman boasted to the audience that supplies poisons the noble ladies of Paris.
To verify this information it was decided to send to the fortune teller dummy customer. In her role, made the wife of one of the police officers who came home to Marie and the Boss started to complain about her husband, the monster. In the end, the woman was sold a bottle of poison, and the teller was immediately arrested.
Interrogation in the XVII were good, so arrested the first day started to take his accomplices and customers. It turned out that all of Paris is shrouded in a criminal network of manufacturers and merchants of death, whose services are used not only ordinary citizens, but also people from the highest light.
The alchemist at work
The poison, which the Parisians called "the powder of the heirs", bought to get rid of a hateful husband, to bring to the grave of the father for the inheritance, to eliminate a rival in love Affairs. It turned out that cases of poisoning are so many that fear gripped residents of Paris who were afraid not only of strangers, but the closest relatives. Brothers and sisters would not touch the food if it was served any other brothers or sisters, husbands were afraid to eat cooked by wives and fathers ate their children.
Mowed the death and the alchemists. It is known that the fortune teller Montigny, being away from his girlfriend La Sharon, accidentally wiped his face with a handkerchief left on the table Mari Boss. After that, she became ill, and on his face appeared swollen. La Sharon saved the friend, to help in the Shoe and forcing her to drink, which caused severe vomiting and relief. The women decided that the competitor decided to get rid of, with the poison of a fabric handkerchief.
The king was shocked by the secret life of Parisians and ordered the creation of the "Fiery chamber" — a special Tribunal which was to deal only with fortune-tellers and alchemists. The result of the work of this body was not long to wait — become aware of even more terrible cases of poisoning, as well as the sale of love potions and holding illegal abortions.
It became known and that for getting rid of annoying men and sagisaka in this world parents, many ladies took part in a satanic "black masses", organizers of which were often made by senior clergymen. One of the detainees in this case, the Abbot of Gibur, admitted that during the ritual sacrifice of infants, bought from poor people.
Madame de Montespan and the king's children
The king was terrified when he learned that these masses were repeatedly involved his mistress Madame de Montespan, who bore him seven children. Gibor said that the king's mistress is completely naked during rituals, covering only the face.
If the rites of the mistress were aimed at keeping power over the king, the other member of Abbot Hiburan, miss DEZ-OYe, ordered ritual, the purpose of which was the death of Louis. It became known about plans of poisoning the monarch with poisoned petitions.
The information that king Louis received in the course of the investigation, broke all the foundations of the Paris court. Therefore, the monarch quickly turned the activities of the "Fiery chamber" and single-handedly destroyed all the papers relating to the crimes of his mistress. All those involved in the case of poisoners and satanic masses the priests were convicted and sent to the end of life in a distant fortress without parole.
In the "Case of poisons" were Princess, three Duke, Marquis, three, four of the Duchess, the Countess, the viscountess one and many small nobles. While the death penalty was sentenced, only the first defendant, the Marquis de Branville. Someone was forced to pay a fine to the Treasury, someone in a panic left France, and someone as the king's mistress, escaped with only a fright. However, she was also punished in his own way- the king lost interest in her completely.
With the guilty from among ordinary citizens, the king did not stand on ceremony. Was executed 36 fortune-tellers and alchemists involved in the manufacture and sale of poisons and love potions. In 1682 the king's decree banned the activities of any fortune-tellers and voracek, but it had little effect. During the lifetime of Louis, in 1702, was next revealed a large network of poisoners, headed by Marie-Anne de La Villa. Some customers of this lady have appeared in the records of the "Fiery chamber" twenty years earlier — life has taught them nothing.