Memory of the Italian artist Amadeo Modigliani etched in his strange nickname modi (from FR. maudit — "damn"), at the same time diminutive and prophetic. Just the fact that Modigliani was awarded after his tragic death, he lacked in life: success, fame, the approval of the critics.
On the day of his birth, July 12, try to tell the story of the artist, keeping however in mind that the last page of his biography has closed a tragic and early death.
Amadeo Modigliani was born in the Italian town of Livorno in 1884. The house once belonged to the family of Modigliani, today hangs a plaque.
Important role in the life of Amadeo played his mother Eugene garcin. She recalls that he first voiced his desire to become an artist at the age of 14 years, being on the verge of life and death in a dangerous attack of typhoid fever, "And suddenly — unconscious desire expressed in a dream. Never until this moment he wasn't talking about that, perhaps, seemed to him an impossible dream." (Photo — the artist's mother Eugene garcin.)
Serious illness was the impetus for the revival of a remarkable artistic gift. Eugene promised his son to invite the teacher as soon as he will recover. And the strange thing, the patient quickly began to recover.
"He's not doing anything, except painting, with extraordinary fervor which surprises me and delights... His teacher is very pleased with it," writes Eugene a few months after Amadeo began taking painting lessons.
At the age of 17 Amadeo Modigliani is recorded in the "Free Academy of drawing the Nude" in Florence. For well-intentioned inhabitants of that era, the Academy seemed a refuge of laziness and idleness, but the future of the artist cared little about the opinions of others. (Photo — the view of the Cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence.)
A year later, modi goes to Venice where he continued his studies of painting. Here he met with Chilean artist Manuel Ortiz de Zarate, who until the last day remained among the loyal friends of Amadeo. (Photo — a pencil portrait of Manuel Ortiz de Zarate, made of Amadeo Modigliani.)
Before coming to Venice, Manuel lived a long time in Paris. He told Amadeo about the temptations of the French capital, about the extraordinary freedom of the local society, the atmosphere of Montmartre, the new artistic currents, graceful grace streets, cozy cafes and illusory lightness of the Parisian life.
Amadeo Modigliani went to Paris a cool January day in 1906. This trip was for him a painful and contradictory: on the one hand — the sweet moment of the fulfillment of desires, and with another — a feeling of breakdown and breakup with the past.
Modi spoke perfect French, the language the mother learned it in childhood. He was dressed with elegance, perhaps a little pompous and clearly dissonant with the image of the artist. Amadeo voted, calling a cab, loaded the Luggage and the address of the hotel in the center. The first time he wore a chic black suit, carefully customized on the figure, under the jacket a white shirt and tie. The outfit was completed with a walking stick, which constantly interfered with, Modigliani awkward spit it in your hand or worn under the arm.
During the first two weeks of his stay in Paris, Modigliani had to change hotels, moving from place to place (which apparently is a sign of profound anxiety), until I finally settled on the hill of Montmartre, famous for the habitat of artists. The hill was green from orchards and vineyards and ser from the barracks and windmills, it was a rustic way of life. (Photo — Montmartre, 1907.)
If the assertion that "you do belong only to the money that you spend", the Modigliani even in poverty were rich. He immediately the wind blew all that he had. Wasting funds has given rise to rumors about his prosperity, but those conversations quickly came to naught. Prospective wealth were only a small savings of his mother.
As usual at that time almost all the painters of Montmartre was in a state of poverty. They were messy and chaotic life, but Amadeo stood out even in their background: he constantly gets into trouble and scrapes, and his figure during the life began to acquire the aura of legend. A few months of Parisian life from the modest young man, Modigliani turned into one of the most famous alcoholics of Montmartre.
They said, for example, one evening, the girl was drunk at a cabaret "Agile rabbit" (one of the favorite gathering places of artistic Bohemia of the time) and provoked a General fight, during which crockery shatters. From this moment the owner is no longer allowed modi to the doorstep. (Photo cabaret "Agile rabbit".)
The manner of drinking Amadeo Modigliani denied any ritual, he was drinking quickly, gulps, not feeling from drinking any pleasure. In the short time he was addicted to absinthe. It seems that alcohol helped the artist to overcome the natural shyness that drunken Amadeo tried to hide under the guise of a cheeky bugger.
A mutual love of alcohol and a joint drinking contributed to the establishment of a trusting relationship between Amadeo Modigliani and his friend the painter Maurice Utrillo. "Was sorry to see them cuddled up in a sort of unstable equilibrium, one barely standing on his feet, the other that tuck," recalled art critic andré Warnod. Picasso once at the sight of the two friends remarked dryly: "Next to Utrillo Modigliani's already drunk." (Photo — Maurice Utrillo.)
At the end of 1907 Amadeo Modigliani met his first true patron of the Field of Alexander — a young doctor, who was his senior by only three years. Paul gave the artist to feel that we appreciate his talent, soothed, softened the negative impact of many of his antics, helped by the fact that provided the Modigliani room for work, bought paintings and drawings, agreed with the models. (Photo — the portrait of Paul Alexander of the work of Amadeo Modigliani.)
With the outbreak of world war I life in Paris has changed, many artists remained aloof from the General mobilization. Amadeo Modigliani, self-proclaimed socialist and an opponent of the war, were eager to get to the front, but was rejected by a military physician who refused to recognize him as fit for service because of poor health. Italian Modigliani pride was hurt and he reacted in his characteristic manner — he started drinking even more alcohol and hashish. (Photo — Paris, 1915.)
Modigliani knew that the feeling he most often inspire people, in the best case, the compassion, and at worst rejection and dislike, but I couldn't help myself. Surrounding is so used to his image of a drunk, can barely stand on my feet and ready to trade their drawings in exchange for a glass of wine, that Amadeo did just that, showing what in psychology is called the "expected behavior".
In February of 1917, Modigliani met Jeanne hebuterne, the woman who for a short time shared his fate, being close to the end. The artist at that time was thirty-three years, Jeanne — nineteen. (Photo Jeanne hébuterne.)
Some light on the nature of the relationship of Jeanne and Amadeo shed the memories of his contemporaries: "Tipsy, he sits on the bench, not knowing what to do, where to go. From the Boulevard Montparnasse appears Jeanne. She's in a coat and warm scarf in his hands. Anxiously looked around, she finally noticed him, sat down and tied on the neck scarf — because he had a cough and high temperature. Modi is silent, arm around her shoulder, and they are permanently frozen in that position, pressed against each other and not saying a word. Then, still embracing, go home together". (Photo — portrait of Jeanne hebuterne work of Amadeo Modigliani.)
Leopold Zborowski, who was at that time patron of Amadeo Modigliani, was very pleased with the appearance of Joan in the life of modi and hoped that it will have a positive effect, forced to keep health and abandon bad habits. This hope, however, proved futile. (Photo — portrait of Leopold Zborowski work of Amadeo Modigliani.)
In the late autumn of 1917, the hostess of the prestigious gallery of Berthe Weill announced that it is organizing the first solo exhibition of Modigliani. Wanting to attract visitors, Leopold Zborowski, put a pair of Nude in the window, which gave an immediate effect, surpassed the wildest expectations of the patron. At the window of a crowded lot of people, there were angry shouts, someone with dirty jokes was to comment on what he saw.
The gallery, which hosted the first solo exhibition of Modigliani are very badly located near the police station. Rising commotion attracted the attention of the Commissioner, who was sent to see what was happening, and by the end of this RAID, ordered the owner of the gallery to immediately close the exhibition.
This is the first and last lifetime exhibition of Modigliani all served Amadeo a good service. The scandal that accompanied its closure, became widely known in Paris, and the artist's name was on everyone's lips. The war has not contributed to the development of the art market, so this involuntary advertising did the trick — paintings of Modigliani began to buy.
29 November 1918, Jeanne hébuterne gave birth to a daughter, as a mother, called Jeanne. Amadeo was so happy that, after leaving the hospital, talked about newborn of all who came his way. Then decided to mark the occasion in a bistro when he came to the office to register the birth of a girl, its doors were closed. (Photo — Jeanne, daughter of Amadeo Modigliani.)
So, the last act of the drama. January 1, 1920 Leopold Zborowski, concerned about the health of Modigliani, locked his house, so he stayed in bed. The artist loudly demanded to release him and eventually escaped via the fire escape. But it had to happen that to meet Modigliani caught Maurice Utrillo, released from a psychiatric hospital. Joy, hugs, violent feast, which was launched in the bistro, and continued — the home of Amadeo, where, meanwhile, came pregnant with a second child Jeanne.
The next day, the girl drank again and late into the night wandered through the cold, deserted streets. The company of friends tried to persuade Amadeo to go home to Jeanne, but he did not want to listen, and then began insulting others, cursing, screaming that he has no friends and never had. Then he suddenly sat on the icy bench and invited all to follow his example. Modi then saw the pier in the port of Livorno. Exhausted, the artist was delirious.
Recently, Modigliani often happened distraction: in his delirium, he talked with imaginary people, and rushing along the Boulevard lit vehicles seen Chinese dragons.
On that fateful night, the girl returned home in a taxi and took to his bed with symptoms of pneumonia, high fever was accompanied by continuous nonsense. 22 Jan 1920 Amadeo in an unconscious condition, was taken to the hospital for the poor and indigent, where he died on the evening of 24 January. Friends to remember that the last words of the artist was: "I Have enough mind to understand that it is the end." Then he added: "I kissed my wife, we are ready for eternal happiness."
25 January, accompanied by his father Jeanne hébuterne came to the hospital to say goodbye to Modigliani, and that night she killed herself, stepping from the bedroom window in my parents ' house. Jeanne was nine months pregnant.
While the funeral Amadeo passed very solemnly, the burial of Jeanne do not. In vain that friends tried to convince the girl's parents to bury young people in the same grave. This proposal was flatly rejected by spouses hébuterne.
However, only two years later the remnants of Jeanne were moved to the tomb of modi at the Paris cemetery Père Lachaise. Gravestone keeps the last entry in the book of life, made the Italian "Amadeo Modigliani. Artist. Born in Livorno on 12 July 1884. Died in Paris on 24 January 1920. Death overtook him on the eve of glory. Jeanne Hébuterne. Born in Paris on 6 APR 1898. Died in Paris on 25 January 1920. Faithful companion Amadeo Modigliani, who has sacrificed his life."