March in Japan, traditionally considered to be women's month. March 3rd is celebrated the feast of the girls who is affectionately known as Hina Matsuri (Hina Matsuri is the doll festival Hina) or Momo-but secca (Momo-no-Sekku — feast of peach blossom).
Hina is a little paper doll. By the third day of the third month, in every family, where there is a girl, having a special exhibition doll ning, the image of man.
Dolls put on a special stand hanakazari that looks like a hill and consisting of 3, 5 or 7 steps and covered with scarlet cloth.
At the top, against a gilded folding screen, giriama or "sir") — twin dolls of the Emperor and Empress in ceremonial robes of brocade or silk. Empress dvenadcatiletnej clothes — 12 on her kimono. This is the most expensive and beautiful doll to any collection.
On both sides are placed small lamps, and in the middle of the tray with the sacred tree, decorated with paper festoons. At the lower levels are dolls of ladies who keep supplies for pouring sake; musicians performing traditional Japanese court music gagaku, they sing, play the flute, banging the drum; the Ministers and dignitaries, bodyguards and servants — a total of at least 15 dolls.
All dolls are dressed in ancient court costumes. On the sixth and seventh steps of the exhibited items to the Palace of use (miniature furniture, a sedan, a wagon, boxes, utensils and a treat). Doll festival coincides with the flowering peach — Momo-but sekku, the feast of the flowering peach) and because hanakazari be decorated flowers peach.
Peach blossoms symbolize tenderness, gentleness, grace, femininity, spokoistvie the best features of the female character, which are the key to happiness in marriage. When the family, a girl is born, there is no better gift than a doll for show and grandparents on my mother's side, give the ning with regards to the girl grew healthy. Very often, this doll is made by hand from expensive materials, and the secrets of a master and their families kept secret.
Sometimes it can be real works of art they are incredibly valuable. They are passed from generation to generation, as the dowry of his daughter, kept as a family treasure. By 3 March decorate the room, where there is an exhibition of dolls: the ceiling hung balls with artificial flowers cherry and tangerine trees.
Each bowl is decorated with hanging silk cord. Everything you need to decorate homes can usually be purchased at special fairs, the so-called Hina-ichi puppet markets, which are held in February. At such fairs come not only to buy something, but also have fun, meet with friends.
In addition to holiday treats has educational value.
On this day, a girl dressed in a kimono with floral pattern, like real ladies, we go to each other's homes, give and receive gifts, eat special sweets: multicolor Hesi Moti, diamond Moti), cookies, hin arare (lush special sweets made of rice, covered with a sweet syrup), shirozake (sweet white sake, which is prepared by thorough mixing of malt rice, steamed rice, and strong vodka) and admire the dolls.
Girls vaccinated rules of etiquette, the concept of character traits that a woman should have, and the ability to take care of valuable things, restraining his desires and whims. In Celebration of the dolls perfectly wonderful game, poetic perception of the world and traditional education.
Exhibition of dolls lasts about a month. There is a belief that cannot be put dolls for a long time, as it postpones the coveted hour marriage, so all items are carefully Packed and stored until next year.
Very interesting history of this holiday, which has more than a thousand years.
On the one hand, in ancient times on the first day of the third moon (day the snake, hence the second name of the holiday — Joshi-but sekku, a celebration of the first day of the snake) did the magical ritual of deliverance from diseases and misfortunes hin-okuri: making paper dolls 流し雛 (ながしびな, Nagase Bina, "a doll that descend on the river"), then performed the rite of transference of evil, unhappiness on the dolls, which rubbed them on the child's body and throwing the doll in the running water or burned to all the diseases left with the doll.
On the other hand in the late eighth century in Japan was a popular children's game 雛遊び (ひなあそび, hin-asobi, the game in the household paper dolls). Children played 2 young dolls, symbolizing the male and female. The game was tied to the magic of the marriage, and the dolls are portrayed to the bride and groom.
Playing with dolls and religious rites were gradually connected, hin the ning regained his form, and by the middle of XIV century the appearance of the Hina Ningyo was basically completed. To this day in many regions, from Tottori Prefecture, there is a custom to throw into the river or the Creek doll.
The art of making and veneration decorative dolls, it is known in the days of the Huiyang. Say senagon in his "Notes on the head, suggests that one lady "made a gift to the Emperor a few beautiful dolls, like the courtiers of pages. The growth of five inches, they were dressed in ceremonial clothes, the hair combed parted in the middle and twisted curls at his temples. Writing to each doll is her name, she presented them to the Emperor."
The very name of the Hina Ningyo appeared in the Edo period (1603-1867), and the national doll Festival became the second quarter of the eighteenth century. It is believed that his popularity, he owes the 8th Shogun of the Tokugawa, the Shiba yoshimune's (1677-1751), who had many daughters.
Then added a custom to arrange this day in homes where there are girls, exhibitions richly dressed dolls, depicting the life of the Imperial court.
Modern holiday kit Hina Ningyo in the form of the Imperial court, was made at the end of the Edo period and included dolls from Kyoto and Edo. Originally, the feast was celebrated only at court and among the military class, but it soon became very popular among ordinary people.