How to raise children in Cossack familiesPictolic
Don, Siberian, Greben, Kuban and other Cossack integral part of the Russian people. They owned land in return for a commitment to serve in the army and to buy weapons, horses, gear, which the Cossacks called "right".
People of the past tried to teach children the different Sciences, and taught them the skills needed in everyday life. So it was with the Cossacks. From an early age of Cossacks were taught not only to sow and plow, but to fight. And of the girls was raised by faithful wives and caring mothers, who in the hour of danger can meet the enemy with weapons in their hands.
Crucial in the education of children the Cossack played godparents, the choice of which the mother and father of the child I thought in advance. Today, this "position" nominal, but in Cossack families godfather — the title of a responsible and honorable. The cross was picked up by the father, and it was supposed to be a reliable person — sister or friend. The cross was looking for mother from among their older friends. They had to live near godson or goddaughter and to take part in their upbringing.
If a boy was born, the main burden fell on the cross, which was formed in this fighting spirit and became an example to follow. Godfather and fathers blood complement each other. A father could be too soft or demanding of his son, and procession, guided by reason and not emotions, are objective in questions of rewards and punishments Maltz.
Baby in no hurry to respectively, because before you can move arms and legs he had to see and realize important for any Cossack items. In the education adhered to the principle of "saw-realized-did." This system of thinking helped adults Cossacks during the battle. No panic, fuss and unnecessary movements. Noticed the danger, assess all the risks and responded.
After the ordinances of the christening of the child carried in parental Smoking and performed a special ritual. In the cradle laid my sword, knife, bullet, or arrow. Called to check on it "by heart." If the baby starts to play with guns, the Cossack is "good", and if you cry, the father and godfather should pay special attention to the formation of a military spirit.
Actively used method of education, which today would be called a "test." The Cossacks specifically put in tough conditions and observed their behavior, identify the shortcomings and advantages, and then corrected and developed the necessary skills and qualities of character. This approach, which is lacking in modern pedagogy, contributed to the development of high-speed thinking and an adequate response to a sudden changing environment.
The ability to stay in the saddle is an important science for young Cossack, which was taught from an early age. When the Cossack had been a year, it led to the first communion. Then the same boy for the first time, seated on a horse and put on his sword. The father took the horse by the bridle and led it around the yard. The celebration of the baby's first year men of the sort carried the baby to the sacred place of the village or farm. For don, it was called "natural boundary", and the Kuban and the black sea — "krupica". So older men transferred to the new generation of spiritual power kind.
7-8 years young Cossack grew up on the female half of the hut, but his education was attended by both women and men. Mainly in this phase was a personal example and dive the boy in the Cossack environment. At this age, special attention was paid to physical development. If the boy hit and cry, men were banned from mothers and grandmothers to talk to him, and said, "don't blow, women, Cossack".
Play with friends took place under the supervision of farm or stanichnoe the elderly. They watched the behavior of the kids, and if you notice something inappropriate, then corrected and instructed the kids. In 8 years, the boy went to the men's part of the house, and the father began to take him to a "conversation". At this stage, the main goal was to teach the boy to cope with fears. Senior said: "fear Not, Kazak not afraid of anything!", "Hold on, Cossack chieftain will!".
The study of military science does not interfere with the Cossacks as adults perform field work, care for livestock, hunting, fishing. The work was an important part of the life of the villagers, as for military service they own money to buy a horse and weapons.
In 12 years, the process of teaching physical education was mostly completed, and the Cossack started to learn to use martial weapons. At the same time, the teenager began to attend the gathering and other important social events where the words had not, but watched and memorized everything.
Old-fashioned checkers on the wall, whip at the door, dad hat and pants with stripes, crosses and medals on the chest of his uncle and godfather have shaped the Cossack understanding of belonging to a particular caste of warriors. In fights and pranks with their peers, who will soon become his brothers in arms, the little guy appeared real friends. A childhood in the desert and on horseback were doing their job. The boy was proud of the family and loved native land.
Sword — a symbol of freedom, stripes and straps — the title of Cossack and horse — friend and comrade, and crosses and medals — purpose. We have had songs about the glorious campaigns, battles and heroes. Through them the boy was making contact with the past and the ancestors, which have to comply with. The 16-year-old boy began to hunt wolves and wild boar and became a full-fledged warrior, trained to ride a horse, slashing with his sword, and to shoot straight.
In the villages proverb: "a son was Born in the family of a Cossack festival, to wealth, a daughter was born to poverty." The fathers believed that raising a girl means to prepare the employee for someone else's smoke. However, this does not mean that the birth of his daughter was not happy. In the villages and hamlets the woman was not the shadow of her husband. She is a homemaker in the classic sense of the term and reliable rear Cossack while he was on duty or in the military campaign.
In honor of the birthday girl's father or grandfather planted willow. Slender tree with flexible branches symbolized the future Cossack woman and was her mascot. After the birth of the baby of her aunt, mother and future godmother "was washed away with dowski care." With songs and kind words relative washed little Cossack girl and wished her happiness. On this occasion he allowed only his father, who was treated with a porridge made from millet burnt.
Porridge specially overdo, has peppered and doused with mustard. Dad ate a plate for a newborn less bitter in life got. In the first step the girl gave a ribbon on the bow and scallop on a scarf. Three years the girls have to babysit the younger, and after five years, some gave "nannies" in other families. 4 years young Cossack taught to gather fruit, feed poultry, 5 they received the first skills of needlework and 7 — he helped his parents in the courtyard and in the garden.
10 years old girl did field work — rowing hay, bundles, milked cows, cooked food. During work and rest, they sang and danced, that they were taught by the older women. Since the age of 14 she was involved in evening gatherings, which were noticed by a future bridegroom. Contrary to popular belief, the choice of a husband did not depend only on the parents. The girl could not get married if the guy she doesn't like. For this there was a special ritual.
Cossack-the young man with his father and godfather were come into the house of the bride "drink tea." It was considered shameful to say that came to matchmaking. Parents talked about the cases, the weather, the health of the family and the last harvest, and the guy casually put on a cap or hat bottom down. If the girl is turned a hat, so her fiance fell in love, and if you put on a hanger, the suit could not be considered.
However, the Cossacks have not only worked in the field and at the furnace. In a moment of danger, when the father, husband and brother around, they took up arms and defended their homes. The most significant example is the defense of the village of Naurskaya. In the summer of 1774 eight thousand Tatars, Kabardians and the Turks came to the land of Greben Cossacks and was under the Cossack village of Naurskaya. Adults Cossacks left in the campaign, and there were only women, children, the elderly, and a few men. Cossack in arms came to the ramparts and repulsed the raiders. In addition to the swords and guns women used the boiling water, which poured climbing up the highlanders.
Take Naur never happened, and the day of June 11 villagers called "woman's holiday". Long Cossacks faced with the mountaineers, reminded them: "How Kabarda went to war, but not coped with the Cossack women." But at a meeting with the horsemen, whose face was burned, joked: "What, man, not the soup whether Naur face?". However, the villagers did not always take a wife of Russian girls. Often the Cossacks married Turkish and Tatar, which brought out Hiking.
Of course, by 1914 the precepts of their ancestors and Cossack education gradually die out. Progress is not only the railway, the Telegraph and Newspapers, but also a change in the social order. Tatars and Circassians no longer suited the raids, but the Cossacks continued to serve in the army, to become scientists, doctors, engineers and generals. To describe the situation best suited saying: "the Cossacks do not happen, but will not find it!".
However, in the "old" Cossack childbirth children tried to bring up how "old", although in the sky flying aircraft. The tragedy of the Cossacks came during the Civil war and the establishment of Soviet power, initiated a policy of decossackization and the abolition of the Cossack class. Intergenerational continuity was broken, and the story ended steppe armies.