Girlfriend, kitty, knowledge of foreign languages: in the middle Ages, the modern woman could burnPictolic
To get into the field of view of the medieval Inquisition could anyone. It was enough to be educated, beautiful, poor, Jew or to those who doubt the righteousness of the Pope and the Holy Church. Especially got to women who, according to Christian theologians, was the repository of sin.
In the Middle ages, almost every modern girl would fall under suspicion of witchcraft, and she could be burned at the stake.
(Caution! The material presented in the series may seem unpleasant or intimidating)
In 1494, the Pope issued a bull in which he called Christians to fight the wizards, witches, heretics and people in contact with the devil. Contrary to popular opinion, the work of the Inquisitor Heinrich Kramer the Hammer of witches, the Church is not recognized and not blessed. The Kramer in 1490 condemned for being too cruel ways of interrogation and excessive interest in sexual aspects of witchcraft.
The Inquisition worked in Catholic countries and in the lands where conquered by the reformation, which opposed the authority of the Pope. For example, in Silesia was built a special furnace for burning witches. During the year it burned 41 people, including five children.
The common people supported the Inquisition. The late middle Ages — this is the start of total war, of famine caused by climate change and plague. In their misery people blamed supernatural forces and neighbors who allegedly waited on Satan and let loose upon them all the trouble. Therefore, most of the indictments of the cases were wound up on denunciations.
The inquisitors believed that before the execution of a witch to torture, otherwise she will be reborn in a new body. Theologian Selvestr Prieres believed that bullying should continue after the recognition, otherwise the beast will not atone for their sins.
During the investigation, beautiful girls under the pretext of seeking the "mark of the devil" may have been raped. Accidents had a psychological pressure, they were starved and not allowed to drink. When the victim weakened, passed to the torture, which was a lot. The most common was considered the rack and "chair of the witch" — a high chair covered with pointed stakes, which had a fire.
The worst torture took place: the girl was stripped naked and tied to a special machine. Unhappy spreads her legs and inserted in her cone, one was placed in the mouth. Through the cones the executioners poured into women water, which was literally torn stomach. Sometimes instead of the liquid used insects.
For special offences could cut off limbs with red hot pincers to tear chunks of meat. If the victim did not live up to the fire, the papers wrote that she was killed by the devil, for example, snapped her neck. Before burning the unfortunate choked by a noose. Specialist of medieval law Jean Bodin recommended to roast a witch on a slow fire, therefore executions used damp wood.
Often witches were accused of beautiful girls. They were believed to attract men, not because of its appearance and natural charm, and by Treaty with the evil spirit. If the husband looks at the neighbor, then you could always complain to her inquisitors, who will understand what it is. Maybe the witch just spoke or drugged blessed?
In the process of investigating a woman could be justified, however, if the unhappy turned out to be red hair or large moles, it is always sent to the stake. Birthmark — the mark of the devil, and the redhead was the first wife of Adam, Lilith was a rebellious disposition.
Officially Joan of arc was burned for wearing men's clothing
At risk were women with warts, scars, wrinkles, hunched back and gray hair. Excessive thinness, as excess weight also talked about the relationship with Satan.
On medieval representations of a woman without a man could not be rich. If she is widowed or not yet married, and lives in abundance, so it helps the devil. To determine the level of welfare of the accused helped the neighbors.
A significant reason to accuse in connection with the other world was considered and the high level of education. The fire went to many scholars and students of medieval universities. For women it was enough just to know geography and foreign languages.
If a woman had a baby without a husband, his father declared Satan. In this case, both the mother and the baby was going to be executed.
Professional success of any Inquisitor considered the disclosure of the Sabbath. Witches rarely act alone and are always collected in the "family". Any gathering of women without men suggests medieval people thought, not whether the witch in front of them. Together, the girls could only for conducting diabolical ceremonies or sabbaths, which means they have to tell the Inquisitor.
Mistress of cats, especially black, mice, owls, and other animals automatically become witches. It was believed that they could move to animals and to do evil. For example, in Germany, the woman was burned because she was not afraid of a black cat that jumped in the Church during the christening.
Revealing story of an Englishwoman, Mrs. Julian Cox, who was executed in 1663. A hunter was chasing a rabbit, which ran away into the bushes. The man rushed after him, but in the Bush stumbled not at the animal, and Mrs. Cox. Hunter called the Inquisition and said that the woman in front of him turned from a rabbit into a human. During the trial, one of the neighbors Julian claimed to have seen the way she flew out the window riding a broom.