It turns out that in some countries of Europe and Asia there is simply no central heating, but the locals do not freeze there at all in winter.
Every Briton is heated "alone". There is simply no such thing as central heating in this country. Boilers are installed in houses and apartments — individual gas columns, heating water and batteries. Depending on the desire and capabilities of the owner, you can either freeze, saving on heating, or heat with might and main, heating the batteries.
"If circumstances allow (the absence of small children), then maintain a lower temperature. By reducing the indoor temperature by 1 degree, you save up to 6% of thermal energy. Reducing the temperature from 24 to 20 degrees will provide up to 24% of heat savings," the recommendations say.
Instead, there are two options:
1. General house heating is centralized heating in a separate apartment building. It is turned on by the management of the house. Apartments in such houses are not equipped with heating equipment. 2. Individual heating. In the bathroom, toilet or kitchen there is a device that regulates hot water. It is electric or gas.
The electricity tariff in the country is double: full — from 7:00 to 23:00 — and preferential, that is, one and a half times less - from 23:00 to 7:00. The state has been encouraging citizens to save energy in every possible way for several decades. And not only with the help of tariff policy.
The same applies to the installation of various kinds of energy-saving environmentally beneficial equipment - solar panels, heaters with increased energy output, both gas and electric. Citizens receive preferential loans for their purchase. As for new housing, since 2008, each project with an area of more than 1000 square meters must meet the new requirements of thermal insulation. Otherwise, it is not accepted and sent for revision.
As a rule, there are no batteries in toilets and bathrooms — in winter the temperature in them does not rise above 10 degrees. There will be no heating in the bedroom either — the British usually sleep in pajamas under a warm blanket. It's expensive to drown all night. A timer is installed on the boiler, each hour is divided into 4 divisions of 15 minutes. You set the alarm for 7 in the morning, and you program the boiler for 6:45 to wake up warm; at 8:30 you go to work — the boiler is programmed to turn off.
Heating in Britain is only a few hours a day, very economical and incredibly eco-friendly. British physiologists have compiled a table of instructions: above 21 degrees is the temperature of discomfort, above 24 is the temperature that increases the risk of heart attacks. The lower threshold of comfort is 18 degrees. From 16 to 18 - the temperature is normal, the risks are low, and this temperature is maintained in winter in five million households in Britain. Companies that supply electricity and gas (this is a competitive market, and you can choose from whom to buy heat, in much the same way as you choose which gas station to fill up the car), give a list of tips on how not to freeze in winter. And one of them is to get a cat. Because the cat is warm and does not consume electricity.
Poor residents of the United Kingdom also somehow adapt and get out. Some go to the local libraries to warm up, where it is warm, cozy and the Internet is free.
The population is given tips on saving. For example, it is not recommended to run a washing machine "idle" — you have to wait until the tank is filled with dirty laundry to the brim. It is advised to wash in cold water: it is more useful for laundry than hot water. Turn off the computer when it is idle without work. Do not leave your mobile phone on charge all night. Use energy-saving light bulbs. Take a short shower instead of a long bath.
There is a central heating system only in Hokkaido Prefecture — the coldest part of the country. The rest of the Japanese population heats itself independently.
Most modern homes in Japan are heated with electric air conditioners (winter/summer) and heaters of various types: electric, oil, kerosene or gas. In the cold season, the Japanese wear warm lightweight pajamas (the material of which includes special fibers that retain heat very well) or use electric blankets over ordinary blankets.
Electric carpets are very popular in Japan. This carpet resembles an electric blanket. The user can adjust the heating temperature. You can heat only part of the carpet, where, for example, you are sitting.
Another attribute of Japanese culture that is traditionally used for heating is kotatsu. It is in every Japanese house. A modern kotatsu is a table with a heating element installed under the lid. Kotatsu also existed in ancient Japan, although at that time it was called and looked somewhat different.
Traditionally, the whole family gathers around kotatsu not only for dinner, but also for conversations, joint board games, watching TV. Kotatsu unites the whole family from young to old, emphasizes family unity and warmth of relationships. Gathered under a blanket, children literally learn to "not drag the blanket on themselves."
By the way, there is no heating in Japanese schools. There are local heating points in recreational areas where children can warm their hands during recess.
In Germany, there is also no central heating in the form in which we are used to it. Here everyone heats himself. Private houses have their own boiler rooms, apartment buildings have separate gas equipment that heats water for batteries. How much gas I burned — that's how much I paid.
All batteries have valves with thermostats, they regulate the temperature in the room. In the living room, where the family spends a lot of time, the heating is turned on more strongly, and in the toilet — at the very minimum. There are even special recommendations for the temperature regime of the premises. 20 degrees of heat is enough for the hall, up to 22 degrees for the bathroom, 16-18 degrees of heat is needed in the bedrooms. In little-used rooms (toilets, storerooms, etc.), the air temperature should be 14-16 degrees Celsius.
At night, Germans often use electric sheets - a heating pad for the whole body. It turns on and off automatically.
German homeowners are increasingly willing to use biomass, firewood, pellets from woodworking waste, heat pumps and solar panels to heat individual homes. The State supports this trend legislatively and financially. Recently, a law came into force in Germany, according to which new buildings put into operation are required to receive part of the energy consumed from renewable sources. Thanks to various government programs, homeowners who have switched to environmental fuels are compensated for up to 15% of the costs of purchasing and installing new equipment.
There is no central heating in our understanding in France.
Batteries are also connected to this device. The heat in the apartment is regulated. Electric heaters are more common than gas heaters. Their main advantage: they do not require regular and expensive inspection and support, like gas ones. The use of them is included in the total electricity bill.
A powerful lever is fiscal. All Frenchmen who carry out work on the thermal insulation of their homes, old or newly built, have the right by law to enter the funds spent in the tax return. In this case, from 25 to 50% of the cost of the work will be credited to them with a minus sign and may reduce income tax.
Increasingly, the new Finnish house draws energy like a mythological Antaeus - from the Earth. After all, in the conditions of Finland at a depth of 200 meters, the temperature can reach + 10 degrees. Finnish rocks are like giant radiators: in summer they accumulate heat, and in winter they give it away.
In Finnish houses, a special device is installed — a heat pump. It costs, of course, not cheap, but it pays off in 5-7 years and allows you to save 30 percent or more of electricity. It is not surprising that such figures tempt owners of old houses to convert their homes.
The Finns forced even the surrounding air to work for themselves - imagine a refrigerator turned inside out, where the cold part is outside, and the heating system with a circulating special substance is indoors. With frosts up to -25 C, this works fine: having spent 1 kW of electricity on work, the heat pump will produce up to 2 and even 5 kW of heat.
Such a "warm" refrigerator, or rather an air conditioner, is effective for small houses - no more than 120 meters of living space. But for small houses it is a real find: there is no need to drill the ground and install expensive equipment: all expenses are no more than 2000-3000 euros.