10 Jan 1897 man was first introduced a vaccine against plague

The Creator of this vaccine, microbiologist Vladimir Khavkin, injected himself. The beginning of a self-fulfilling prophecy of Louis Pasteur: "One of my students will stop the plague."

Paster said it is already dying when the last visit to your Institute. He was then demonstrated under the microscope the causative agent of the plague bacterium, just open his pupil Alexander Vietnam.

10 Jan 1897 man was first introduced a vaccine against plague

The third pandemic of plague: a terrible disease has broken out of the natural focus in Central Asia and attacked China, Russia and India. From India came the youngest to experience a pupil of Pasteur — Russian citizen Vladimir Khavkin Aaranovitch. However, a Russian citizen, he was no longer even on paper. Khavkin not called for in time the Russian Embassy to renew my passport. Yes at home he wasn't expecting.

There he was listed as a people, politically unreliable. Visited three times in custody, 8 years were under the supervision of the police. Without regret Russian Ambassador gave him a letter of recommendation for the British government, which invited Khavkin to India to experience its cholera vaccine. Also the first in the world.

In this vaccine doubt and patron Khavkin Ilya Mechnikov and Louis Pasteur. However, the results were excellent — 93% guaranteed protection. Believing that the wizard Hawking, the British called him again — now to deal with the plague. Took a staff biologist in the civil service, promised British citizenship and the lab.

In fact, the lab in the Bombay medical College have identified with unprecedented generosity — the whole room. In the state — one laboratory and three of the courier. Experimental animals — rats, which sailors for pennies caught on come from European courts. Simultaneously with Havkin, several research centers have developed an antiplague vaccine in much more luxurious conditions. And yet, undocumented immigrant is all furnished.

10 Jan 1897 man was first introduced a vaccine against plague

He chose the path that others did not go to do a vaccine is a poison produced by plague germs. So out faster than flowing bacilli from generation to generation through the organisms of thirty rabbits. Yes rabbits and was not. Germs bred in meat broth. To them it was something to cling to on the surface, Khavkin dropped into the broth drop fat. Germs clutching a greasy spot and grew down like a stalactite. These "stalactites Khavkin" testified that bacteria feel great. From time to time flasks with them shacked bacilli were drowned, to the surface again dripping with fat, for it clung to new germs, and so until all the broth is saturated with toxin.

Stronger than all suffered the Mandvi district inhabited by the poorest. But they did not want to be vaccinated. In vain the Indian students told them that the vaccine is made here and the Creator of it is not "inglish", and "Russia". And this "Russia" the same persecuted because he was a Jew, and openly says that the British are as bad to the Indians, as the Imperial power to his people. For poor people from the slums Mandvi was all white on one person. Encourage them to take the vaccination could only influential person they completely trust. And such a leader was found. He came to Khavkin.

10 Jan 1897 man was first introduced a vaccine against plague

It was Aga Khan III, the ruler of the invisible Empire of the Ismailis, the 48th Imam of the great sect, guide the Muslim community in anticipation of the Messiah Mahdi. He was barely 20, but this young man knew five languages and was versed in the Sciences, so that they could evaluate the possibility of vaccine articles in the medical periodicals. He just got married, and the wedding of his scattered from Mozambique to Indonesia the subjects presented him with gold coins, total weight of which was equal to the weight of the 48th Imam. Gold enough, but British methods of combating the plague of his guards. If the colonialists will drive into the coffin of all the inhabitants of the quarter Mandvi, among which was full of Ismailis, and smash to pieces their homes, as it did in Karachi, where will the precious metals at the next weigh in 5 years?

From 11 thousand Ismailis had been vaccinated against plague. Now and disease, and the damned fighters with it bypassed their home party. Seeing that the Aga Khan "for the people", neighbors of the Ismailis began to convert to Islam, entering into the ranks of the Shiite sect. There are already the leaders of the Hindus sensed the competition and tried to persuade their co-religionists to be vaccinated. And Khavkin declared a Mahatma. The Aga Khan received from this scientific experiment all he wanted. Queen Victoria showered him with awards and introduced in the Indian government. In Western India, inhabited predominantly by Muslims, of the creatures of the Aga Khan grew elite of the future, independent of Pakistan. When the government gained sovereignty, Aga Khan was again weighed. But now, on the other the scales sprinkled not gold, and diamonds. 95 pounds of diamonds.

Khavkin in 1897, realized with whom he was dealing. He was the Aga Khan your interest. Vladimir Aaranovitch invited the Imam only project of liberation of the Jews from the rule of other peoples. According to him, the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II Palestine then belonged to the Ottoman Empire — allowed the Jews to buy land around Jerusalem. Formed a compact Jewish autonomy, which from gratitude would become a mainstay of the power of the Sultan on the turbulent Arab East.

It is curious that the head of the Ismailis, indeed, discussed this plan with Abdul-Hamid. He flatly refused. Aga Khan III had lived another 60 years and more than once, that among all the mistakes of the last sovereigns of the Ottoman Empire, this was the worst.

10 Jan 1897 man was first introduced a vaccine against plague

Aaranovitch Vladimir Khavkin (1860-1930) on the rise of his career, in 1896. He defeated cholera in India, personally, to instill in 42 thousand people. Queen Victoria has already included it in the premium list, to mark her nearest birthday: Havkina will be granted British citizenship and the title of Chevalier of the Order of the Indian Empire.

10 Jan 1897 man was first introduced a vaccine against plague

The winter of 1896-1897 years. Bombay, outdoor crematorium, the so — called funeral Ghat, where Hindus continuously burn the bodies of hundreds of victims of the plague. The body is laid on the logs laid in between the four steel rods. After combustion, the ashes thrown into the sea. Left the stretcher just brought in another body of the deceased.

10 Jan 1897 man was first introduced a vaccine against plague

1897, Karachi, West India (now Pakistan). The demolition of the homes of the dead from the plague. Real sanitary-epidemiological result of this defeat were not given, because a plague infection does not nest in the house, its native animals, primarily rodents. But it looked impressive, and the bosses have the feeling that "the situation is under control" and "measures taken".

10 Jan 1897 man was first introduced a vaccine against plague

Top left — major-General William Forbes Gatacre (1843-1906), head of the Bombay garrison and the head of the Plague Committee established March 5, 1897. He was endowed with dictatorial powers, was very active. Gatacre believed that the plague can be overcome without the help of doctors, some organizational measures. Every day he personally went around Bombay, withdrawing of cases of plague, to isolate them in the hospital. Relatives of patients were brought to special camps (where they were dying of heat and hunger), their home was filled with carbolic acid to disinfect. Cruel senseless actions caused civil disobedience, armed rebellion and strike in the Bombay dock. 30 Jun 1897 General under the specious pretext was transferred to another position with a raise. During the Anglo-Boer war commanded a division at the battle of Stromberg was ignominiously defeated.

Upper right — the spiritual leader of the Ismailis, the 48th Imam of their community Aga Khan III (1877-1957) in 1898, while traveling through Europe. Played a key role in mass vaccination, urging residents of Bombay trust Hawkin and his assistants. Achievements of the Aga Khan III in the fight against hunger and plague praised Queen Victoria: he was given an audience, and granted the title of knight commander of the order of the Indian Empire. One of the richest and influential people in the world, the actual Creator of Pakistan as an independent state West of the Indian Muslims, in 1937, Chairman of the "world government" — the League of Nations.

Bottom left — Vladimir Khavkin vaccinates children against cholera. Photo taken in early 1896 in Bengal, where Khavkin took sick with malaria.

Lower right Khavkin, Director of the Laboratory for the study of plague (since 1925, is a research institution bears the name of the Khavkin Institute) in late 1902 or early 1903. It staff: assigned to laboratories of the British military doctors, Indian doctors, administrators.

Khavkin sitting with a white pith helmet in his left hand, behind him, third from left is superintendent officer responsible for the laboratory of the armed forces, major William Barney Bannerman (1859-1924). He is ready to play the role of Judas. Because of the incompetence Bannerman couldn't trust him no more difficult manipulation of the injection. Bannerman strongly intrigued against Khavkin. Using a medical error during vaccination in Punjab 30 Oct 1902 (cork from the bottle with the vaccine fell to the ground, and 19 died from tetanus), has made the removal of the Director from the leadership of the laboratory and the actual expulsion Khavkin from India for several years.

Photo: Dr. Maitland Gibson (seated at the right hand of Khavkin).

The bottom two photographs are in the collections of the National library of Israel, Jerusalem.

Keywords: Disease | Vaccine | Vaccination | Plague

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